Utility estimates are often complicated because they depend on both inflation and energy costs. This simplified approach offers a two-factor utility-cost equation and the relevant coefficients for a number of utilities
Gael D. Ulrich and Palligarnai T. Vasudevan, University of New Hampshire
Typical process utilities include electricity, process steam, refrigerants, compressed air, cooling water, heated water, hot oil, process water, demineralized water, municipal water, and river, lake, or ocean water. For preliminary cost...
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