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Archives :: Technical & Practical

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February 1, 2013
Research and development (R&D) projects usually require significant time, effort and manpower to become successful. Despite the significant resources spent on R&D projects, only 5–10% of the projects are statistically believed to be successfully commercialized, in terms of both timing and technological advances. Many projects fail because they cannot achieve the desired results on timing of...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Accelerating-Process-and-Product-Development_10177.html
February 1, 2013
Determining the proper preliminary size for centrifugal pumps during the initial stages of any pump-specification exercise requires numerous calculations and assumptions. This article reviews the steps needed to size centrifugal pumps during the early stages of a project, to support initial cost-estimation efforts. Such early pump-sizing efforts are important steps toward final pump selection and detailed...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Sizing-Specifying-and-Selecting-Centrifugal-Pumps_10179.html
February 1, 2013
 Figure 1. A handful of ceramic proppants is shown here Carbo Ceramics This article covers permitting and directly related design issues associated with thermal processes using drying and calcining for the production of both proppant sand and ceramic proppants (Figure 1) as an illustrative example (see sidebar, "What are proppants"). The permitting issues vary significantly with air-quality...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Environmental-Permitting-Barriers-for-Dryers-and-Kilns_10180.html
January 1, 2013
Waste heat recovery (WHR) is essential for increasing energy efficiency in the chemical process industries (CPI). Presently, there are many WHR methods and technologies at various stages of implementation in petroleum refineries, petrochemical, chemical and other industry sectors. Increasing energy costs and environmental concerns provide strong motivation for implementing more and newer methods and...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Waste-Heat-Recovery-Methods-And-Technologies_10084.html
January 1, 2013
An industrial compressed-air system is expected to supply air of defined quality, required pressure and desired quantity to all the plant air and instrument air consumers. With air being one of the most critical utilities of a chemical plant, a compressed air system should function efficiently and cost effectively. Therefore, designers should consider parameters such as air quality, air consumption and...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Design-and-Specification-of-A-Compressed-Air-System_10085.html
January 1, 2013
Virtually every process-plant manager pursues the commendable goals of safely extending equipment life and maximizing both the availability and reliability of plant assets. Achieving these objectives usually requires upfront effort and money — both of which can be scarce resources. But even the realistic manager who knows that reliability comes at an ufront price may not want to authorize these...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Use-Simplified-Lifecycle-Cost-Computations-to-Justify-Upgrades_10087.html
December 1, 2012
Airborne respiratory hazards are a very real threat in the chemical process industries (CPI). Existing in a variety of forms including gases, vapors, dusts, mists, fumes, smoke, sprays and fog, such hazards can cause illnesses including cancer and lung impairment, or even death. Examples of respiratory hazards include combustion byproducts; toxic fumes or dust created by metal melting; ozone and nitrogen...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Clearing-the-Air-About-Respiratory-Protection_9985.html
December 1, 2012
Companies in the chemical process industries (CPI) spend billions of dollars every year on capital projects. Most are successful, yielding the desired results. Some projects are only partially successful (and therefore partial failures), in that they are ultimately completed and work as desired, but only after a budget or schedule overrun. And some projects fail completely, sometimes spectacularly, never...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Avoiding-Project-Failures_9988.html
December 1, 2012
Equipment for generating synthesis gas (syngas; mostly CO and H2) is typically the most expensive part of an overall gasification complex. Understandably, the owners of gasification assets seek the highest value for the syngas produced by these assets. The methodology used in this study describes which gasification products may yield the highest value for the resulting syngas, given certain input data and...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Selection-of-an-Optimum-Gasification-Product_9990.html
December 1, 2012
When designing a batch system, engineers often select the control solution based on the size of the system. It is traditionally thought that small batch systems require a controller-based sequencing solution, while larger systems require a server-based solution. However, despite traditional practices, the size of the system is not always the best indicator of an appropriate solution. A small application or...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Batch-Control-Controller-Versus-Server-Based-Sequencers_9991.html
December 1, 2012
Compared to petroleum refining, the coal gasification process appears less complex. The chemistry behind the primary gasification reactions have been well known for around 100 years, and coal is more plentiful than petroleum in the U.S. and in some other areas. So why then, are petroleum refineries common and coal gasification plants so rare? There are a host of reasons for why petroleum has historically...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Coal-Gasification-For-Chemicals_9992.html
December 1, 2012
When it comes to rotating machinery (pumps, compressors, gas turbines, steam turbines, turbo-expanders, and others) operating in the chemical process industries (CPI), installation, piping, support, pre-commissioning, commissioning and startup play crucial roles. Machinery maintenance and repair can be quite costly, and perhaps because of shortages of skilled manpower, particularly at remote site...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/CPI-Machinery-Commissioning-Startup-and-Piping_9994.html
November 1, 2012
Preventing dust explosions is not rocket science, and still these disasters occur. This article is written to help prevent these accidents. It describes how and why these explosions happen and what can be done to avoid them.   Why they occur Dust explosions occur when three conditions are present simultaneously. The first is that there is a dust cloud of a combustible material (the fuel). The second...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Dust-Explosions-Prevention-and-Protection_9901.html
November 1, 2012
One of the most significant limitations on the operation of dynamic compressors (axial and centrifugal compressors) is the low-flow limit known as “surge”. A sudden valve closing, such as for emergency shutdowns or for a suction/discharge valve, presents significant challenges to anti-surge valve sizing and selection. Anti-surge valve requirements depend to a large degree on the compressor...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Anti-surge-Valves-for-Dynamic-Compressors_9903.html
November 1, 2012
The prices of low-voltage variable frequency drives (VFDs) have declined substantially since they were introduced, while the cost of power has increased. Normal project economics will now justify these VFDs — which go up to 375 kW (500 hp) or beyond — for pumps over the largest part of the range of application of the pumps. To efficiently evaluate and apply VFDs, process engineers need to know...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Variable-Frequency-Drives-for-Centrifugal-Pumps_9904.html
November 1, 2012
Throughout the chemical process industries (CPI), various chemicals must be injected into process streams to serve a variety of purposes. Chemical-injection systems can be arbitrarily defined as those systems that are used to inject chemicals at a flowrate that is less than 1 to 5% of the main process stream. Table 1 shows a non-inclusive list of chemicals that are typically added into process streams via...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Designing-Chemical-Injection-Systems_9905.html
October 2, 2012
This article covers permitting and directly related design issues associated with thermal processes used for drying and calcining, using the production of ceramic proppants as an illustrative example. While the magnitude of permitting issues varies significantly with air-quality attainment area status, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide and particulate matter are always the major issues. With proper...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Proppants-Illustrate-Environmental-Permitting-Issues-for-Dryers-and-Kilns_9782.html
October 1, 2012
Inorganic acids play a major role in the chemical process industries (CPI). They are used as raw materials, catalysts or finishing and pH control agents in the manufacture of a wide range of chemical products, from fertilizers to detergents, and even foods. Given their widespread use, a major issue in the CPI is the proper and safe handling of the acids, the adequate materials selection for the pieces of...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Acids-Handling_9776.html
October 1, 2012
Small chemical reactors offer a number of benefits compared to large reactors, such as better heat transfer and mixing. While small batch vessels are impractical at the industrial scale, continuous flow reactors can provide the benefits of small physical size without the practical difficulties of multiple vessels. This article considers the four basic needs of flow reactors (volumetric capacity, heat...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/From-Batch-to-Continuous-Processing_9785.html
October 1, 2012
Blending and segregation are two opposite and competing processes in solids handling that ideally fit the expression “two sides of the same coin.” But, if you think about it, coins have three sides and sampling completes the idiomatic expression perfectly. Blending is a necessary and essential process operation widely employed in many industries and materials, from nano-scale powders to...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Blending-Sampling-and-Segregation_9786.html
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