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Archives :: Technical & Practical

Displaying 81 - 100 of 522 stories.
May 1, 2013
Occasionally, direct fired heaters that have operated satisfactorily for long periods of time subsequent to startup develop operating problems that do not allow for operation at design conditions, as specified in the manufacturers API data sheets for the heater. Performance that may be guaranteed, or otherwise specified by the supplier would include the type and characteristics of the feedstock processed...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Correcting-Improper-Performance-of-Direct-Fired-Heaters_10471.html
May 1, 2013
   Polypropylene (PP) is one of the world’s most widely used polymers, second only to polyethylene in terms of global demand. The global market for polypropylene is over 60 million metric tons per year, and it is utilized in a broad and diverse range of end-uses — from injection-molding applications to films and sheets, as well as synthetic raffia and other fibers, among others...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Polypropylene-Production-via-Gas-Phase-Process_10472.html
May 1, 2013
A variety of technologies, methods and best practices are available to obtain the lowest total cost of ownership for compressors used in plants throughout the chemical process industries (CPI). This article discusses several critical areas in which concerted effort can help to reduce the overall cost of ownership.    Specifying compressors The ability to carry out proper shop-based performance...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Compressors-Pursuing-Lowest-Cost-of-Ownership_10473.html
May 1, 2013
Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are one of the most important and commonly used process equipment items in the chemical process industries (CPI). If you are working on a project during either the basic or the detailed engineering phase, there is a good chance that you will need to specify one or more shell-and-tube exchangers — and perhaps many of them. While the actual design will likely be done...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Specifying-Shell-and-Tube-Heat-Exchangers_10477.html
April 1, 2013
Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is the active constituent in chlorine bleach, a strong oxidizer and bleaching agent. Increases in household bleach demand are driven mostly by population growth. In turn, population growth and its corresponding increases in water consumption — coupled with limited fresh water resources — makes water treatment the largest application for bleach, as well as the...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Sodium-Hypochlorite-Chemical-Production_10388.html
April 1, 2013
Sulfur is a major contaminant in the oil and gas industry that exists in various forms and requires separation from both water and process streams. In recent years the removal of sulfur species has received increasing attention because of safety concerns, the need to reduce emissions of sulfur oxides (SOx), and the fact that sulfur harms the combustion properties of fuels. The “sulfur recovery...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Filtration-and-Separation-In-Sulfur-Recovery_10389.html
April 1, 2013
Many chemical manufacturing processes require large amounts of energy, and chemical companies are faced with the constant challenge of determining how to use that energy as sustainably as possible. More and more chemical companies are prioritizing a range of energy efficiency measures aimed at decreasing energy use and costs while reducing environmental impact. One of the most promising energy-efficiency...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Boosting-Energy-Efficiency-in-Chemical-Manufacturing-A-Look-at-Cogeneration_10391.html
April 1, 2013
The continuing development of natural gas extraction from shale deposits, known simply as shale gas, is fueling the growth of simple- and combined-cycle power plants. Much coal-fired power is being replaced by these technologies. In addition, though, simple- and combined-cycle units are well suited for power and steam production at industrial facilities.   The combustion turbine Back in the heyday of...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Combined-Heat-and-Power-for-the-CPI-Modern-Concepts_10392.html
April 1, 2013
This article provides guidance to the designer and operator of a safety-instrumented system (SIS), with an emphasis on conducting measurements. The use of best practices to ensure the strength of the overall system design, and the use of instrument diversity to combat common causes of failure, are covered briefly. Greater detail are provided on the use of new technologies — in particular, new...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Safety-Instrumented-Systems-Focus-on-Measurement-Diagnostics_10393.html
April 1, 2013
What if someone were to tell you that there is one method available for sizing relief valves that applies to virtually every situation, including two-phase flow and supercritical fluids? And what if they told you that method is more accurate and easier to use than traditional methods or formulas? As it turns out, both of these statements are true. The approach described here — the Direct Integration...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/The-Direct-Integration-Method-A-Best-Practice-for-Relief-Valve-Sizing_10394.html
March 25, 2013
Users design safety instrumented systems to bring the risk of identified process hazards to within tolerable levels, using application-specific risk...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Design-Safety-Instrumented-Systems-with-Relevant-Data_10361.html
March 1, 2013
To realize the best possible thermal efficiency, gas turbines should be integrated into chemical process industries (CPI) plants, but doing so can be difficult and requires special consideration. Specifically, in some CPI units, while the turbine’s shaft is driving an equipment component (such as a compressor), the hot exhaust gas from the gas turbine can be connected to furnace burners or...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Integrating-Gas-Turbines-Into-CPI-Facilities_10295.html
March 1, 2013
Many chemical process industries (CPI) facilities utilize high-pressure steam generators to produce both electricity and process steam. This technique is commonly known as combined heat and power (CHP). A popular approach in recent years has been to select a combined-cycle power and steam-generation unit to utilize the combination of a combustion turbine and a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) for...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Beware-of-Flow-Accelerated-Corrosion_10296.html
March 1, 2013
One of the most unsettling experiences in a company’s existence may be the surprise regulatory inspection by a representative of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or a State Environmental Agency. What if you refuse to let them in? What are your rights? How can you best ensure that the inspection goes smoothly? This article briefly summarizes the government’s environmental...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Responding-to-Environmental-Inspections_10297.html
March 1, 2013
Propylene is typically considered a co-product in steam crackers and fluid-catalytic-cracking (FCC) processes, which are primarily driven by ethylene and motor gasoline production, respectively. Recently, most U.S. ethylene producers have shifted to lighter feedstocks due to the availability of low-cost natural gas and natural-gas liquids (NGLs) from shale. This shift drastically decreases propylene...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Propylene-Production-via-Metathesis_10298.html
March 1, 2013
Changing out used heat-transfer fluid is critical to the efficiency of a heat-transfer fluid system. A well-operated heat-transfer-fluid system can enable efficient production, fewer shut-downs, less maintenance time and lower costs. In order to maintain a sound heat-transfer system, it is critical that the fluid is well cared for and, when the fluid reaches the end of its life, that it is efficiently...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Five-Steps-to-Replacing-Aged-Heat-Transfer-Fluid_10299.html
March 1, 2013
Piping leakage due to corrosion has the potential to cause catastrophic fires and damage to process equipment in petroleum refining and other chemical process industries (CPI) facilities. When such incidents occur, a large amount of damage and a long downtime results. Despite the risks, mistakes are often repeated in the way burner piping is designed and used. Using the failure-analysis investigation of a...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Corrosion-in-Flexible-Burner-Hoses_10300.html
February 1, 2013
Pressure-relief valves are widely and effectively used in situations where the pressure in a process vessel rises to above the vessel’s design-pressure rating. Proper relief-valve sizing is critical to plant and process safety to permit fluids sufficient flow area to exit the vessel. Sizing relief valves requires several equations for different flows (liquid flow, vapor flow and two-phase flow), as...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Sizing-Calculations-for-Pressure-Relief-Valves_10173.html
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