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April 1, 2006
    Cartridge trays, defined below, can be the perfect hardware solution for distillation columns that are less than 3 feet (0.9m) in diameter and have a unique need for trays. Packing is usually the preferred choice for small-diameter columns, but there are several circumstances in which trays are advantageous. Examples include fouling systems, certain foaming systems, high-pressure applications...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Distillation-How-to-Specify-and-Install-Cartridge-Trays_3090.html
April 1, 2006
Most chemical processes must produce products that are uniformly mixed. There have been many articles written about preventing particle segregation during bulk solids flow; and ensuring a mass flow pattern is a common suggestion. But mass flow alone is not necessarily the answer to all segregation problems that can occur in silos and tanks. We will focus on the two major mechanisms of segregation; namely...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Will-Mass-Flow-Solve-All-Your-Segregation-Problems_3111.html
March 1, 2006
    Solvents have been used for centuries and in all type of industries for the processing, manufacturing and formulation of goods. In the chemical process industries (CPI), solvents are used in various process-operation steps such as separation (of gas, liquid and/or solid), reaction (as reaction medium, reactant, and carrier), degreasing, washing and many more. As part of product formulations...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/A-Modern-Approach-to-Solvent-Selection_2775.html
March 1, 2006
    Depending on their location and on other factors, chemical-process-industries (CPI) plants obtain their process water from a diverse range of sources (see Process Water Supply — the Big Picture, Chem. Eng., May 2005, pp. 32–34.). The water from most, if not all, of these sources requires some, if not a great deal of, contaminant removal onsite in order to make the water suitable...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Process-Water-Treatment-Challenges-and-Solutions_2796.html
March 1, 2006
    Fuel costs rose sharply in 2005 because of hurricane damage to U.S. interests in the Gulf of Mexico, and international developments in the oil supply market. Competing fuels — coal and natural gas — rose in price in lockstep. Natural gas has risen in cost, and has been reported to be as much as $17/MM Btu in December 2005 for industrial use in the northeastern U.S. As operating...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Consider-Alternate-Fuels-To-Cut-Costs_2797.html
March 1, 2006
    Engineers often need to predict the cost of piping and pipefitting associated with a process unit. Even though detailed prices are available, finding and organizing them takes time and costs money. For those needing a quick method of approximation (such as for a pre-design estimate), a short-cut piping cost method is presented in this article. For convenience and compactness, the relevant...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Short-Cut-Piping-Costs_2814.html
March 1, 2006
    Minor components trapped in distillation columns can react to form solids that cause major problems. The conventional responses to this situation focus upon dealing with the solids after they have become formed. A better strategy consists of preventing or minimizing the solids formation in the first place, by changing the column operating conditions.   Understanding the situation The...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Minimize-Trapped-Components-in-Distillation-Columns_3089.html
February 1, 2006
    A clear definition of what a project will include can go a long way in helping to reach the desired objective. Spending the time upfront to seek input from pertinent parties and to scope out the details can prevent frustration, unexpected costs and sometimes insurmountable obstacles later on. A project scope defines what a project encompasses. It outlines the complete story by describing what...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Project-Success-Builds-On-a-Well-Defined-Scope_2774.html
February 1, 2006
    Piping-flexibility and stress analysis are required in the design of most piping systems before the piping is installed in a chemical-process or other plant. It is intended to ensure the safety of the plant and thus protect the interests of the owner and the general public. Owing to the availability of powerful computer software packages, the analysis has become simple and routine. However...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Stress-Analysis-for-Piping-Systems-Resting-on-Supports_2795.html
February 1, 2006
    In pneumatic conveying systems that operate under high positive pressure, it is common wisdom that as the downstream end is approached, the diameters of the pipeline segments should be larger. Air (or other conveying gas) is compressible, so if a single-diameter pipeline is instead used, the gas velocity will reach very high values. If the conveyed material is abrasive, the consequence can be...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Pneumatic-Conveying-Before-Stepping-the-Line-Look-Into-Air-Extraction_2813.html
February 1, 2006
    Groundwater, surface wa-ter, wastewater, drinking water: it’s all essentially the same stuff. Whichever stage of the water cycle you care to look at, chemical engineers are to be found — either trying to stop water from becoming polluted in the first place, or cleaning up afterwards.   Cleaning up outdoors Many water purification processes rely on naturally occurring...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Managing-Water-Pollution_3068.html
February 1, 2006
In the U.S. last year, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita powerfully demonstrated the ability of nature to disrupt companies’ operations and commitments. In a business context, the effects of such natural (or, for that matter, civil or social) disruptions can be felt up and down the hydrocarbon, petrochemical and other chemical-process supply chains, causing shortages, delays and allocations of material...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Force-Majeure-Make-the-Best-of-It_3088.html
February 1, 2006
Whether working on retrofits or new-plant construction, engineers involved with chemical-process projects nowadays are likely to find themselves under pressure to reach completion quickly, sometimes even at the cost of bypassing traditional procedures and project controls. The downside becomes a loss in predictability, in terms of costs and sometimes, paradoxically, in the very meeting of those hurry-up...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Keeping-fast-track-projects-from-going-off-the-rails_3093.html
January 1, 2006
    Successful startup and operation of solids-handling processes depend on myriad small yet fateful decisions that are made during the various phases of the project. Many of these are not quantitative but qualitative in nature, and are largely based on experience and broad-based knowledge of solids handling. It is just as important to know what not to do as it is to know what to do. Since many...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Guidelines-for-Solids-Storage-Feeding-and-Conveying_2773.html
January 1, 2006
    Immersion heaters are used in a wide variety of applications in the chemical process industries (CPI). Knowing which heater to specify for a particular application and how to maintain it can make a manufacturing process more cost-efficient. This article describes the types of immersion heaters available, explains how to select them and provides guidance on installing and using the heaters. As...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Immersion-Heaters-Selection-and-Implementation_2793.html
January 1, 2006
    The first two installments of this three-part series (CE, November 2005, pp. 40–45, and December, pp. 42–47) dealt mainly with the major methods for estimating the capital costs of pilot plants. This final installment begins with a look at the making of provision for contingency, a concept sometimes misunderstood and even more often misapplied in pilot-plant cost estimating...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Pilot-Plant-Cost-Estimating-Make-Intelligent-Use-of-Contingency_2794.html
January 1, 2006
    In process engineering and design, thermodynamics theory is applied to real and complex chemical-process applications. Software design simulators, such as HYSYS, PROII and Aspen Plus, serve as powerful tools that simplify process thermodynamic calculations. They eliminate the need for the engineer to solve complex differential equations, and they allow the application of variety of property...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Applying-Thermo-Then-Guard-Against-Misconceptions_2811.html
January 1, 2006
    Leakage costs industry millions of dollars every year. For example, a few small leaks in a facility using air at 100 psig, with an electric consumption cost of about 6¢/kWh, can waste more than $22,000 annually. Delaying the replacement of a leaking $100 steam trap could waste $50 per week; since an average facility typically has hundreds of steam traps throughout its operations, leaking...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Avoid-Leakage-in-Pipe-Systems_2812.html
January 1, 2006
Whether working on retrofits or new-plant construction, engineers involved with chemical-process projects nowadays are likely to find themselves under pressure to reach completion quickly, sometimes even at the cost of bypassing traditional procedures and project controls. The downside becomes a loss in predictability, in terms of costs and sometimes, paradoxically, in the very meeting of those hurry-up...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Keeping-fast-track-projects-from-going-off-the-rails_3092.html
March 1, 2005
      Although water and steam are the ideal media for heat transfer, there are often situations when other heat-transfer fluids are called upon to perform this function in the chemical process industries (CPI). Thus there are, at the very high-temperature end, various types of heat-transfer fluids, such as molten salts and even molten metals. At the lower end of the temperature scale we...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Get-the-Most-From-High-temperature-Heat-transfer-fluid-Systems_4872.html
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