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Displaying 441 - 460 of 522 stories.
April 1, 2007
    Flow measurement plays a critical role throughout the chemical process industries (CPI). Repeatable measurements are needed to maintain consistent production and quality standards in a wide range of process-control applications. Inaccurate liquid- and gas-flow measurements can mean the difference between profit and loss, and in some cases, can lead to more serious consequences. This article...
April 1, 2007
    With typical operations running around the clock, the chemical process industry (CPI) demands high performance from its instrumentation. Today's flowmetering solutions include tools for the entire life cycle of a flowmeter. From engineering, commissioning and start up to operations and maintenance, advanced diagnostics and onsite device-verification features help to maximize plant...
April 1, 2007
    Free trade agreements, global manufacturing standards and the Internet have made it possible for companies to do business in countries they would not have considered 20 years ago. Open is a world of opportunity, but for processors of pharmaceuticals, semiconductors and other materials that must meet high standards of product purity and performance, the competition is stiffer than ever as...
April 1, 2007
    Modeling the behavior of bulk solids has been a longstanding challenge for researchers and practitioners alike. The differences between fluids, rigid solids and bulk solids can best be illustrated by their responses to applied stress. For instance, when an external stress is applied to a fluid, it is transmitted equally in all directions. The response of a rigid solid (such as a metal bar) to...
March 1, 2007
    Occupational dangers in the chemical process industries (CPI) are many, with falls, respiratory hazards, and explosion risks confronted daily. One hazard, however, causes no pain nor visible scars. Its effects accumulate with each overexposure and can go unnoticed, often for decades. If statistics are any indication, it is the most common permanent and preventable occupational injury at the...
March 1, 2007
  Pipe flanges are used to mechanically connect pipe sections to other pipe sections, inline components, and equipment. Flanges also allow pipe to be assembled and disassembled without cutting or welding, which eliminates the need for those two operations when dismantling is required. In providing a breakable joint, however, flanges unfortunately provide a potential leak path for the process fluid...
March 1, 2007
  The preparation of a unit for restart requires complex and systematic approach. A plant restart project is traditionally composed of four steps: 1. A detailed unit-status evaluation 2. Preparation for onsite work 3. Major onsite work, which involves significant expenses for personnel, supply, equipment renting and contractors 4. Restart of the plant, which focuses on bringing the unit online. Upon...
March 1, 2007
    The use of shell-and-tube heat exchangers is widespread in the chemical process industries (CPI). In applications where contact between shell- and tube-side fluids is not tolerable, it is important for the engineer to understand some of the design details that ensure leak tightness. In his work, the author has found a great deal of literature that addresses the strength and tightness of tube...
March 1, 2007
    The pressures and challenges placed on the chemical process industries (CPI) have been heralded so often that even a person on the street can articulate most of them; and the list continues to grow - cost containment, lawsuits, fewer blockbuster discoveries, unexpected competitors, and many more. The cold hard reality is that the CPI have entered into a tough, cruel business world where only...
March 1, 2007
    With energy costs rising, the value of most powders and bulk solids has been rising steadily as well, giving manufacturers ample reason to improve production efficiency. "Companies not only want to reduce their consumption of power, they also want to reduce product losses," says Scott Will, director of sales and marketing for Modern Process Equipment (Chicago, Ill.); "if you...
February 1, 2007
    Why do governmental bodies regulate VOC (volatile organic compounds) emissions? Because these compounds react with nitrogen oxides to produce ground-level ozone. VOC emissions have many names: hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), non-condensable gases (NCGs), or just plain “organic vapors.” Examples of such emissions in the chemical process industries (CPI) include gasoline and diesel...
February 1, 2007
    The equilibrium phase distribution ratio (K value) is necessary for designing and assessing the performance of distillation columns. This paper proposes a simplified approach to calculate the K value that is suitable for preliminary design work and for checking the performance of existing columns. The article also explains the first principles for calculation of K values from the fugacity of...
February 1, 2007
    Steam traps have been around for a hundred years or so, and for the most part, nothing revolutionary has come forward to change the basic way a trap functions. Any operation that uses steam to produce a high-quality, consistent product depends on a multitude of these ingenious devices to do their job day in and day out. Yet, who watches over these steam traps, which may number in the...
February 1, 2007
    This is the first in a series of articles that will cover a wide range of piping topics. The topics will cross process-industry lines, pertaining to, for example, the chemical, petroleum-refining, pulp-and-paper and pharmaceutical and other industries.The main intent of these articles to address questions and misunderstandings as they relate to use of piping on a general basis.   Typical...
February 1, 2007
    There are a variety of reasons to consider the purchase of a new tank or silo1. As organizations grow, so does the need for increased storage capacity. Meanwhile, an old tank may become corroded or worn and require replacing. Once it's determined that a new tank is needed, there are a variety of choices to consider. Whatever the end purpose, the chemical process industries (CPI) require tanks...
January 1, 2007
    Chemicals, plastics, pharmaceutical, food, agricultural chemicals, coal and bio-chemical industries have a wide array of processes where the raw materials, intermediates and products are in particulate form. Hazards associated with particulate solids are unique, and in most cases depend on the particle size. The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic framework for designing...
January 1, 2007
    Predicting an adiabatic-temperature rise is useful to chemical engineers for a number of purposes. One use is with combustion reactions whereby it is useful for determining the adiabatic-flame temperature. The adiabatic-temperature rise can be calculated for any reaction of interest, and thus it is often useful in the analysis and design of reactors. The adiabatic-temperature rise is also...
January 1, 2007
    Regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs) are commonly used for controlling volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from a broad spectrum of industries. An RTO is basically a thermal oxidizer that uses ceramic media as the heat exchanger medium, providing high heat recoveries. Over the past few years, much attention has been given to the pros and cons of the different types of ceramic media...
January 1, 2007
    Improvements in cartridge dirt-holding capacity has led to new designs, as well as to new equations for filter selection and specification, which are linked to dramatic improvements in the time between turnarounds and filter changeout. Cartridge filtration serves the process industries in a host of applications. Ironically, however, filtration principles are not taught adequately in many...
December 1, 2006
    Accidents do happen. While not everything can be predicted, addressing safety concerns throughout the design of a process can help to prevent accidents from occurring. Designing with safety in mind can also help to minimize potentially serious consequences that would result if an accident did occur. On April 12, 2004, toxic allyl alcohol and allyl chloride were released from a reactor at a...
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