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Archives :: Technical & Practical

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October 1, 2007
Click here for full pdf version of this article - includes all graphs, charts, tables, and author information   This fourth in a series of articles* on piping for process plants examines two topics that may, at first, seem to fall outside the scope of chemical engineering — piping codes and the pipe fabrication. Obviously chemical engineers will not be welding pipes together, but understanding the...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Piping-for-Process-Plants-Part-4-Codes-and-Fabrication_3391.html
October 1, 2007
Click here for full pdf version of this article - includes all graphs, charts, tables, and author information   Explosion prevention must be a primary objective wherever the process of transferring powders into flammable solvents is utilized, irrelevant of the industry and existing practices, in accordance with regulatory guidelines such as the ATEX directives (Directive 94/9/EC, 1994 and Directive...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Prevent-Explosions-During-Transfer-Of-Powders-Into-Flammable-Solvents_3394.html
September 1, 2007
    The screening process has always been the workhorse for solid-solid separation in chemical, pharmaceutical, food, mineral processing, coal and agricultural sectors. It can be done in dry or wet mode depending on the state of the feed and desired state of the product. It serves many purposes, for example scalping, separation of fines and coarse, dewatering, de-sliming and trash removal. Some...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Dry-Screening-Sorting-Out-The-Basic-Concepts_3370.html
July 1, 2007
    Most columns shut down without fires. Yet most refineries and chemical plants at some time or another have experienced spontaneous or hot work ignitions in at least one column. When this occurs inside a column during or after shutdown, the results can be devastating and dangerous. This paper concentrates on the fires related to packing in columns.   Many refineries and chemical plants...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Causes-and-Prevention-of-Packing-Fires_3124.html
July 1, 2007
    Traditional pressure-relief devices are, at times, unable to protect vessels at the elevated temperatures experienced during fires. As witnessed by numerous examples throughout history, loss of containment and the subsequent explosions that may occur with an over-pressurized system can lead to catastrophic results in terms of equipment damage, monetary loss, environmental impact and even...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Emergency-Pressure-Relief-For-External-Fire-Scenarios_3126.html
July 1, 2007
    Piping design is the job of configuring the physical aspects of pipe and components in an effort to conform with piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs), fluid-service requirements, associated material specifications, equipment-data sheets, and current good manufacturing practices (GMP) while meeting owner expectations. All of this must be accomplished within a pre-determined...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Piping-Design-Part-3-Design-Elements_3136.html
July 1, 2007
    As the nanoparticle market continues to swell, expertise is surfacing about nanoparticle grinding and dispersion processes. A grinding solution (wet grinding with agitator bead mills) achieves the production of nanoparticles with an average fineness of 40–100 nanometers (nm). However, dispersion doesn’t always come as easily. Chemists and process engineers found that many...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/NanoparticlesMild-Dispersion_3150.html
June 1, 2007
    Most assets depreciate, losing value over time as a result of wear and tear, age, or obsolescence. Corrosion, like depreciation, results in the often hidden cost of a non-cash expense — measurable in terms of reduced operating life — that reduces the value of assets. Many engineers in the chemical process industries (CPI) see corrosion on a “straight-line basis” in...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/A-New-Approach-to-Corrosion-Monitoring_3123.html
June 1, 2007
    Process performance, quality and reliability depend directly on how a plant performs in real time. Yet many plants track and respond only to longterm averages. By measuring and responding to realtime measures, you can ensure:     Quick recovery from process upsets   Fast change-over to another product   Shortened batch-cycle times   Measuring and responding to the...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Realtime-Metrics-for-Process-Performance_3135.html
June 1, 2007
    It's no secret that the chemical process industries (CPI) are being significantly impacted by the recent increases in energy costs. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, the CPI's percentage of total operating costs that are attributable to energy range from about 7% to over 30%. Because of such intensive energy use, these industries - including manufacturers in chemicals, pulp and...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Energy-Management-Consider-Supply-And-Demand_3148.html
June 1, 2007
      The cost to power fans and ventilators in the chemical process industries (CPI) is a significant consideration in efficient system design. More than 25% of the energy consumed in most CPI plants is used to power fans for ventilation and air-pollution-control systems. Annual operating costs for these units can easily exceed the initial capital cost of the equipment in two years (see...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Energy-Efficiency-Optimizing-the-Air-Power-Equation_3149.html
June 1, 2007
    Although sealing technologies rarely make the headline, when they do, its usually for a tragic reason, which demonstrates how important this small component really is. For example, on January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger disintegrated 73 seconds into its flight, after an O-ring seal in its right solid rocket booster (SRB) failed. The seal failure caused a flame leak from the SRB...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Small-but-mighty_3327.html
May 1, 2007
    The highly diversified field of industrial electrochemistry includes processes to synthesize organic and inorganic compounds, the conversion and storage of energy, galvanic deposition of metals and alloys. Electrochemistry also plays a lead role in corrosion protection, sensor devices, and other kinds of technology where charge transfer takes place at an electrified interface. Today, research...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Industrial-Electrochemistry-Safe-Clean-Green_3122.html
May 1, 2007
    Spreadsheets have been around almost as long as personal computers. While early versions were clumsy and limited in scope, today’s spreadsheet programs can do almost anything the user wants them to do. These broadened capabilities are made easier through the use of internal (built-in) functions, add-in programs and the use of macro programming. In this article, we explore how...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Using-Spreadsheets-As-Curve-Fitting-Tools_3133.html
May 1, 2007
    Fired heaters are used considerably in the chemical process industries (CPI), for heating crude oil in the petroleum refining and petrochemical sectors. Unfortunately, fired heaters are often taken for granted and neglected more than other equipment in terms of operation and maintenance. Proper care and attention to these heaters can prolong run lengths and increase reliability and safe...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Minimizing-Flame-Impingements-In-Fired-Heaters_3134.html
May 1, 2007
    A detailed follow up of the cations present in the wastewater of the Monsanto Europe site in Antwerp, Belgium, has led to an increased understanding of changing wastewater treatment plant performance. The chemical process industries' (CPI) other wastewater treatment plants that handle continuously changing mixtures of different manufacturing plant effluents should also consider routine...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Monitor-Cations-in-CPI-Wastewater-for-Better-Performance_3146.html
May 1, 2007
    Pure water is an essential ingredient in the manufacture of a vast amount of products in the U.S. and, of course, throughout the world. In the industry for which I work, electricity generation, high-purity water is an absolute must for feeding high-pressure steam generators. But of course, steam generation is also important in the petroleum-refining and petrochemical industries...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Microfiltration-For-CPI-Wastewater_3147.html
May 1, 2007
Business software applications, such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) — the broad set of activities that are supported by application software to help companies manage business activities, including product planning, parts purchasing, maintaining inventories, interacting with suppliers, providing customer service and tracking orders — have all but saturated the large end of companies...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Sanctioned-cheating_3336.html
May 1, 2007
Business software applications, such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) — the broad set of activities that are supported by application software to help companies manage business activities, including product planning, parts purchasing, maintaining inventories, interacting with suppliers, providing customer service and tracking orders — have all but saturated the large end of companies...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Sanctioned-cheating_3340.html
April 1, 2007
    Flow measurement plays a critical role throughout the chemical process industries (CPI). Repeatable measurements are needed to maintain consistent production and quality standards in a wide range of process-control applications. Inaccurate liquid- and gas-flow measurements can mean the difference between profit and loss, and in some cases, can lead to more serious consequences. This article...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Evaluating-Industrial-Flowmeters_3144.html
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