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Displaying 41 - 60 of 522 stories.
January 1, 2014
Corrosion and deposition in boilers, steam turbines and many types of process equipment are among the most expensive causes of outages in utility and industrial steam plants. Deposits and scale buildup on heat-transfer surfaces reduce efficiency, and when allowed to accumulate on steam turbines, such buildup can reduce the capacity. Corrosion-related failures can result in outages ranging from a few days...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Pressurized-Piping-Sampling-Steam-and-Water_11365.html
December 1, 2013
Petroleum refineries generate power from a number of sources, including cogeneration plants and steam networks. Generally, steam networks use turbines to improve operational reliability, specifically as drivers for rotating equipment. Due to increasing energy costs, it is essential to maximize the power-generation capabilities of steam networks. This article presents a spreadsheet-based optimization model...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Optimization-of-a-Steam-Network_11239.html
December 1, 2013
A plant turnaround is always challenging in the chemical process industries (CPI). But with proper planning and reliable procedures in place, last-minute time crunches and failures can be prevented. When haste combines with faulty methods, costly problems result. This article presents three examples of actual plant turnarounds and the lessons that can be learned from them.   Case study No. 1...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Plant-Revamps-and-Turnarounds-Some-Lessons-Learned_11266.html
December 1, 2013
Olefin dimerization is a reaction where two molecules of a monomer combine to form a dimer. It can be utilized to produce normal butenes from ethylene, which can be provided by a steam cracker. Dimerization of ethylene is generally applied when butene is required in another part of a petrochemical complex. For instance, the dimerization unit may be integrated with a metathesis unit, to produce...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Butene-via-Ethylene-Dimerization_11272.html
December 1, 2013
When the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) revised the U.S. Hazard Communication Law, U.S. 29 CFR 1910.1200, in May of 2012, it set off an avalanche of change in the environmental, health and safety (EH&S) circles of American industry. Virtually every manufacturing and service industry will be involved in one aspect or another of adapting its existing hazard communication system...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/The-Globally-Harmonized-System_11273.html
December 1, 2013
The topic of carrying out process engineering calculations in the most effective manner can be considered in these four ways: 1. The purpose of the calculation 2. The content of the calculation 3. The method used to carry out the calculation 4. The performer of the calculation   The purpose of the calculation Engineers typically carry out calculations for a variety of purposes including the following...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Calculations-in-Process-Engineering_11278.html
December 1, 2013
CUI — that acronym should be enough to capture your attention. All chemical process industries (CPI) plants are aging — and some are aged, especially in the U.S. and Europe. Corrosion under insulation (CUI) should be regarded as a silent killer, and there aren’t enough doctors, or in other words, experts in the field to address the problem sufficiently. FRI’s experimental unit was...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Corrosion-the-silent-killer_11279.html
December 1, 2013
Gear units play a critical role in a diverse array of chemical process industries (CPI) facilities, to match the speed of a selected driver with the speed of the driven equipment. Today, they are used extensively in pumps, turbines and compressors, in material-handling units (such as conveyers and stackers), and in other equipment, including mixers, kneaders and extruders. This article discusses...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Gear-Units-In-CPI-Plants_11281.html
November 1, 2013
Ethanol is widely produced by fermentation of sugars from agriculture feedstocks, such as corn and sugarcane. In order to meet growing energy requirements, several lines of research have focused on cellulosic ethanol production, where some type of lignocellulosic biomass, such as woodchips, sugarcane bagasse, corn stover and others, serve as the feedstock for the process. Use of these raw materials is...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Ethanol-from-Woodchips_11159.html
November 1, 2013
A recent book by Lieberman [1] stresses that to combat the environmental crisis that our planet is facing, it is essential to make existing units work adequately and efficiently. Equipment that malfunctions or limps along limits production and does not permit good energy and equipment utilization. This, in turn, leads to higher environmental degradation, not to mention plant downtime and lost production...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Troubleshooting-and-Solving-a-Sour-Water-Stripper-Problem_11171.html
November 1, 2013
Industrial microbiology continues to hold the promise of producing an increasingly large array of commercially important chemicals because an ever-wider number of useful microbes is being developed and successfully deployed at commercially viable scales. Today, many of these bio-based chemicals are needed in quantities so large that existing fermentation technology is inadequate, and this is pushing the...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Heat-Transfer-for-Huge-Scale-Fermentation_11172.html
November 1, 2013
Working in close proximity to the high pressures and temperatures commonly found in the chemical process industries (CPI) is cause enough for concern over a person’s wellbeing; but working in close proximity to chemicals that are considered toxic, hazardous or reactive escalates that concern to a higher degree (Figures 1 and 2). The dangers of such chemicals underline the paramount importance of...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Piping-Design-for-Potentially-Lethal-Chemicals_11173.html
November 1, 2013
Milling is a mechanistically driven process that breaks solid material into smaller pieces. Selection of the optimal mill is a daunting task that often leaves engineers relying on vendor suggestions to decide which mill is right for their job. This article addresses a methodology to score and rank the various mills for use with a particular material. In milling, a materials are broken up due to a few basic...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Selecting-the-Proper-Mill-for-Your-Product_11174.html
October 1, 2013
Ethanol is a widely used commodity chemical with several applications, including use as a solvent and as a gasoline blendstock in the fuel market. Globally, the major portion of ethanol production is based on the fermentation of sugars from crop feedstocks, such as sugarcane, corn, cellulosic material and others. World fuel ethanol production is about 85 billion liters annually, with 60% resulting from...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Ethanol-from-Sugarcane_11066.html
October 1, 2013
Chemical, pharmaceutical and related industries produce large amounts of wastewater in their production and cleaning processes. The wastewater characteristics are often diverse, and may include minimally biodegradable or toxic substances, or both. To protect the environment, these wastewaters typically must be treated to minimize pollutant concentrations before discharging to the environment, or to...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Biological-Wastewater-Treatment-Selecting-the-Process_11067.html
October 1, 2013
Boilers generate steam using different methods to circulate the steam-water mixture through the evaporator tubes. These methods include natural circulation (Figures 1, 2a–2c), forced circulation (Figure 3a), and a once-through design. Figures 3b, 4 and 5 show examples of a waste-heat water tube and fire-tube boilers with external downcomers and risers. Most boiler systems have evaporator tubes heated...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Understanding-Boiler-Circulation_11068.html
October 1, 2013
It is well known that the oil-and-gas, chemical and petrochemical industries are capital intensive. They require sophisticated facilities (plants), the installation of which are typically handled via capital projects that, regardless of size, require significant effort from a number of parties for execution. The investing or operating company is typically called the owner and, for a number of reasons...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/The-Owner-Role-in-Capital-Projects_11072.html
September 1, 2013
Polypropylene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer formed by the polymerization of 10,000–20,000 monomers of propylene. With a global market of about 60 million metric tons per year, PP is the second most-used polymer globally. More than 35% of the world’s total PP is produced using LyondellBasell’s (Houston; www.lyondellbasell.com) Spheripol technology. The process In Spheripol technology...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Polypropylene-Bulk-Phase-Process_10941.html
September 1, 2013
Proper steam-trap sizing is critical to efficient and reliable steam-trap operation. Incorrect steam trap sizing can undermine the design and function of the steam trap, create installation issues, and cause condensate backup, steam loss, or both. Steam-trap sizing refers to the internal discharge orifice for condensate. Unfortunately, it is sometimes confused with the size of the end connection or piping...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/How-To-Properly-Size-A-Steam-Trap_10944.html
September 1, 2013
Rotary equipment, such as centrifugal pumps, often represent the heart of plants in the chemical process industries (CPI). A critical factor in the longterm reliability of such equipment is a high-quality design and commissioning process, so that initially, the rotary equipment will have the maximum built-in strength to survive upset operating conditions, yet not be overdesigned in a way that leads to...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Improve-Rotary-Equipment-Reliability-with-Checklists_10945.html
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