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Displaying 41 - 60 of 516 stories.
December 1, 2013
CUI — that acronym should be enough to capture your attention. All chemical process industries (CPI) plants are aging — and some are aged, especially in the U.S. and Europe. Corrosion under insulation (CUI) should be regarded as a silent killer, and there aren’t enough doctors, or in other words, experts in the field to address the problem sufficiently. FRI’s experimental unit was...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Corrosion-the-silent-killer_11279.html
December 1, 2013
Gear units play a critical role in a diverse array of chemical process industries (CPI) facilities, to match the speed of a selected driver with the speed of the driven equipment. Today, they are used extensively in pumps, turbines and compressors, in material-handling units (such as conveyers and stackers), and in other equipment, including mixers, kneaders and extruders. This article discusses...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Gear-Units-In-CPI-Plants_11281.html
November 1, 2013
Ethanol is widely produced by fermentation of sugars from agriculture feedstocks, such as corn and sugarcane. In order to meet growing energy requirements, several lines of research have focused on cellulosic ethanol production, where some type of lignocellulosic biomass, such as woodchips, sugarcane bagasse, corn stover and others, serve as the feedstock for the process. Use of these raw materials is...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Ethanol-from-Woodchips_11159.html
November 1, 2013
A recent book by Lieberman [1] stresses that to combat the environmental crisis that our planet is facing, it is essential to make existing units work adequately and efficiently. Equipment that malfunctions or limps along limits production and does not permit good energy and equipment utilization. This, in turn, leads to higher environmental degradation, not to mention plant downtime and lost production...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Troubleshooting-and-Solving-a-Sour-Water-Stripper-Problem_11171.html
November 1, 2013
Industrial microbiology continues to hold the promise of producing an increasingly large array of commercially important chemicals because an ever-wider number of useful microbes is being developed and successfully deployed at commercially viable scales. Today, many of these bio-based chemicals are needed in quantities so large that existing fermentation technology is inadequate, and this is pushing the...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Heat-Transfer-for-Huge-Scale-Fermentation_11172.html
November 1, 2013
Working in close proximity to the high pressures and temperatures commonly found in the chemical process industries (CPI) is cause enough for concern over a person’s wellbeing; but working in close proximity to chemicals that are considered toxic, hazardous or reactive escalates that concern to a higher degree (Figures 1 and 2). The dangers of such chemicals underline the paramount importance of...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Piping-Design-for-Potentially-Lethal-Chemicals_11173.html
November 1, 2013
Milling is a mechanistically driven process that breaks solid material into smaller pieces. Selection of the optimal mill is a daunting task that often leaves engineers relying on vendor suggestions to decide which mill is right for their job. This article addresses a methodology to score and rank the various mills for use with a particular material. In milling, a materials are broken up due to a few basic...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Selecting-the-Proper-Mill-for-Your-Product_11174.html
October 1, 2013
Ethanol is a widely used commodity chemical with several applications, including use as a solvent and as a gasoline blendstock in the fuel market. Globally, the major portion of ethanol production is based on the fermentation of sugars from crop feedstocks, such as sugarcane, corn, cellulosic material and others. World fuel ethanol production is about 85 billion liters annually, with 60% resulting from...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Ethanol-from-Sugarcane_11066.html
October 1, 2013
Chemical, pharmaceutical and related industries produce large amounts of wastewater in their production and cleaning processes. The wastewater characteristics are often diverse, and may include minimally biodegradable or toxic substances, or both. To protect the environment, these wastewaters typically must be treated to minimize pollutant concentrations before discharging to the environment, or to...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Biological-Wastewater-Treatment-Selecting-the-Process_11067.html
October 1, 2013
Boilers generate steam using different methods to circulate the steam-water mixture through the evaporator tubes. These methods include natural circulation (Figures 1, 2a–2c), forced circulation (Figure 3a), and a once-through design. Figures 3b, 4 and 5 show examples of a waste-heat water tube and fire-tube boilers with external downcomers and risers. Most boiler systems have evaporator tubes heated...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Understanding-Boiler-Circulation_11068.html
October 1, 2013
It is well known that the oil-and-gas, chemical and petrochemical industries are capital intensive. They require sophisticated facilities (plants), the installation of which are typically handled via capital projects that, regardless of size, require significant effort from a number of parties for execution. The investing or operating company is typically called the owner and, for a number of reasons...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/The-Owner-Role-in-Capital-Projects_11072.html
September 1, 2013
Polypropylene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer formed by the polymerization of 10,000–20,000 monomers of propylene. With a global market of about 60 million metric tons per year, PP is the second most-used polymer globally. More than 35% of the world’s total PP is produced using LyondellBasell’s (Houston; www.lyondellbasell.com) Spheripol technology. The process In Spheripol technology...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Polypropylene-Bulk-Phase-Process_10941.html
September 1, 2013
Proper steam-trap sizing is critical to efficient and reliable steam-trap operation. Incorrect steam trap sizing can undermine the design and function of the steam trap, create installation issues, and cause condensate backup, steam loss, or both. Steam-trap sizing refers to the internal discharge orifice for condensate. Unfortunately, it is sometimes confused with the size of the end connection or piping...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/How-To-Properly-Size-A-Steam-Trap_10944.html
September 1, 2013
Rotary equipment, such as centrifugal pumps, often represent the heart of plants in the chemical process industries (CPI). A critical factor in the longterm reliability of such equipment is a high-quality design and commissioning process, so that initially, the rotary equipment will have the maximum built-in strength to survive upset operating conditions, yet not be overdesigned in a way that leads to...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Improve-Rotary-Equipment-Reliability-with-Checklists_10945.html
September 1, 2013
Mixing and blending of bulk solids is a common processing step in many industries. For example, in pharmaceutical manufacturing of solid dosage formulations (tablets or capsules), small amounts of a powdered active drug are carefully blended with excipients, such as sugar, starch, cellulose, lactose and lubricants. With foods, many powder-form consumer products result from custom mixed batches; consider...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Fundamentals-of-Bulk-Solids-Mixing-and-Blending_10946.html
September 1, 2013
Solid and serrated fins (Figure 1) are widely used as heat transfer surfaces in boilers and heaters. The use of finned tubes makes heat exchanger equipment compact. The fluegas pressure drop is also decreased relative to a comparable plain-tube design, resulting in lower operating costs. Fin geometry, such as fin density (fins/in.), fin height and fin thickness, should be selected with care as it impacts...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Understanding-Finned-Heat-Exchangers_10954.html
August 1, 2013
Propylene has been established as an important part of the global olefins business, trailing only ethylene in terms of volume of product. Because inexpensive natural gas from shale in the U.S. is increasingly used as a feedstock for producing ethylene, lower quantities of three- and four-carbon olefins are available. For this reason, new chemical processes for on-purpose propylene using low-cost raw...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Methanol-to-Propylene-Technology_10789.html
August 1, 2013
The scaleup of liquid mixing systems does not have to be a mystery. The principles are quite well understood, although knowing which principles apply is not always obvious. Follow this guidance to improve operation. 1. Liquid mixing scaleup. Liquid mixing is the most common use of scaleup methods in chemical engineering. The concept of scaleup is to take small-scale results and predict results in...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Ten-Things-You-May-Not-Know-About-Liquid-Mixing-Scaleup_10818.html
August 1, 2013
Raw materials and energy represent two of the largest expenses in the chemical process industries (CPI). Energy reduction is necessary to sustain cost-effective production and manage capacity in the ever-changing CPI marketplace. Process simulation software can prove extremely valuable in evaluating energy reduction potential. This article discusses the successful application of process simulation software...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Absorber-Optimization-Employing-Process-Simulation-Software_10822.html
August 1, 2013
Manufacturers face seasonal supply-and-demand variations in their production cycle due to fluctuations in both market demand and supply of raw materials. Therefore, manufacturers need solutions that can help them to cope with this challenge in effective production planning. Pinch analysis, which has been used for resource conservation in the past few decades, has recently been extended to production...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Pinch-Analysis-for-Production-Planning-in-Manufacturing-Industries_10823.html
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