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February 15, 2008
The failure of a device or of a group of components can lead to overpressurization and subsequent adverse events, such as fire, explosion, spill or release. The most common causes of overpressurization are listed below. Understanding the circumstances surrounding overpressurization will help an engineer to avoid these failures. External Fire According to API RP 520 and 521 standards, a fire-exposed area is...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Causes-of-Overpressurization_3671.html
January 15, 2008
Centrifugation is the method of choice in the chemical process industries (CPI) for separating solids from liquids. It relies on the G-forces generated by high-speed rotation to recover solids or liquids from slurries, as well as clarify liquids or classify solids. Centrifuges can be categorized as either sedimentation or filtration units. Sedimentation centrifugation relies on a difference in density...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Facts-at-Your-Fingertips-Sedimentation-Centrifuging_3601.html
January 15, 2008
Among the many types of pollution-abatement systems that are in use today, wet fluegas desulfurization (FGD) systems — also known as wet scrubbers — are notoriously capital- and maintenance-intensive. These systems are widely used by electric power plants and chemical process facilities to capture and neutralize sulfur-laden fluegas, and help plant operators to meet strict federal and state...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Controlling-SO2-Without-Corroding-the-Bottom-Line_3605.html
January 15, 2008
Corralling gigabytes of predictive maintenance data isn’t easy, but it’s essential for streamlining your process Plant maintenance is one of the disciplines in a chemical process environment that uses gigabytes of technical and operational data on a daily basis. Of course, managing an industrial plant involves a large amount of data, which can be acquired, stored and represented in numerous...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-Computerized-Maintenance-Management-Systems-For-Effective-Plant-Performance_3606.html
January 15, 2008
Low-cost, corrosion-resistant castings are being produced using epoxy and mineral aggregates Stainless steel, painted and plated cast-iron and steel structures are being replaced at a fraction of the cost with high-precision polymer castings (PPCs). PPCs can usually be cast to tolerance, thus eliminating machining. Because they are produced from an epoxy-resin material, painting, plating and anodizing are...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-Corrosion-Resistance-Using-Rock-and-Glue_3607.html
January 15, 2008
Knowing the options in fluid-circulation designs helps in the selection process Over the past few decades, hundreds of seal geometries and a fair number of seal categories have evolved. Recently, the distinction between single- and dual-mechanical seals has been brought into focus by heightened safety and environmental concerns. Dual seals are often selected where safety is of paramount concern. To aid in...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-Seal-Fluid-Circulation-Devices-Understanding-the-Differences_3608.html
January 15, 2008
By utilizing efficient scheduling software, companies in the CPI can improve enterprise agility and compliance In the fast-paced and ever-changing world of chemical processing, companies are constantly trying to keep up with the latest technology, while at the same time creating detailed schedules that enable them to maximize customer service, enterprise agility and compliance, and minimize inventory...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Operations-and-Maintenance-Technology-and-Scheduling-The-Perfect-Chemistry_3610.html
December 15, 2007
Seals are assemblies of elements that prevent the passage of a solid, liquid, gas or vapor from one system to another. When a seal allows leakage of material, failure has occurred. This guide provides an overview of common seal types and a discussion of seal failure to aid in choosing the most effective seal and avoiding future failure. Seal Types Seals types can be classified within two broad categories...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Avoiding-Seal-Failure_3552.html
December 15, 2007
Chemical products and processes make modern life possible. The systems that provide housing, transportation, health care, and food for billions of people rely on chemical products, but as demand for these essential materials grows, the environmental impacts of the products and the processes that create them are becoming a greater concern. As this concern about the magnitude of the associated environmental...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-Green-Engineering-and-the-Design-of-Chemical-Processes-and-Products_3558.html
December 15, 2007
What we can do to support its goals Green engineering, as explained by chemists and bio-scientists, includes production of energy and materials from "green" feedstocks, such as biomass and microorganisms, with the intent of reducing energy, waste, greenhouse gases (GHGs) and water consumption. By extension, other contributions that reduce GHG emissions also support green engineering. The obvious...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-The-Role-of-Chemical-Engineers-in-Green-Engineering_3559.html
December 15, 2007
Demanding application requirements coupled with improved downstream control devices and enhanced instrument diagnostics have led to major changes in process-valve monitoring and control. Factors driving these changes in the chemical process industries (CPI) include the need for lower plant operating costs, reduced maintenance requirements, greater efficiency and reliability in onstream performance, and...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-Advances-in-Valve-Position-Monitoring_3560.html
December 15, 2007
Although current process simulators contain an extensive library of thermodynamic models and unit operations, they do not contain many new, complicated, or lesser known models. For many companies, particularly those in the petrochemical refining industry, it is very important to have access to new models that are not yet available in common process simulators like AspenPlus or Hysys. For that reason, an...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-CAPE-Open-An-International-Standard-for-Process-Simulation_3561.html
December 15, 2007
This article introduces a simple yet accurate way to calculate the wetted surface area of a partially filled horizontal vessel with semi-elliptical heads. This information is often needed for the sizing of relief devices. API Recommended Practice 521 specifies that a vessel containing liquid, mounted such that its lowest point is less than 7.62 m (25 ft) above ground level, must be fitted with a...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-Accurate-Wetted-Areas-For-Partially-Filled-Vessels_3562.html
December 15, 2007
Scales are available in a dizzying array of types and sizes to suit different needs. Although it’s easy to default to price in order to eliminate the tedious task of researching your options, a basic knowledge of these ten key factors can help you secure the scale with the best overall value and utility for your specific application. #1: Primary Use Determining the proper style and size of the scale...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Solids-Processing-Weighing-Your-Options-The-10-Most-Important-Scale-Considerations_3564.html
November 15, 2007
As the chemical process industries (CPI) make the transition from communication protocols and systems that are cable-ready to those that are wireless, the conversation is changing. On the plant floor and in the executive suite, terms such as mesh network and interoperability bring new meaning to the manufacturing environment. But what does it all mean? How can companies truly begin to decode this new...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Going-Wireless_3495.html
November 15, 2007
Steam traps are an integral part of steam systems in the chemical process industries (CPI). Steam is commonly used to add energy into a process through its latent heat (steam heat), while the resultant sensible heat (hot condensate) drains through steam traps. The operation of these traps influences the entire steam system’s function and reliability. Steam trap operation has a bearing on the...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/The-Importance-of-Intensive-Steam-Trap-Management_3496.html
November 15, 2007
Liquid density is important to engineers throughout the chemical process industries (CPI). Knowledge of liquid density is required in the design of storage vessels. In hazard analysis, knowledge of liquid density is required in the design of the relief valves to protect the system. In vapor-liquid operations, such as distillation, knowledge of liquid density is required to determine column diameter. For...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Liquid-Density-Of-the-Elements_3497.html
November 15, 2007
Although some CPI management may not realize it, PLCs (programmable logic controllers) are the brains behind many operations in the chemical process industries (CPI). A malfunctioning PLC can cause lines, plants and even operations such as city bridges and water stations to shut down. Thousands to millions of dollars could be lost in association with one PLC that maintenance personnel may not even know...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/PLC-Maintenance-Management_3498.html
November 15, 2007
To ensure the health and safety of workers, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) adopted the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) in 1983. Initially designed to protect workers in the manufacturing sector, the HCS was expanded in 1987 to cover all industries where workers could be exposed to hazardous chemicals. This article gives an overview of the OSHA requirements for material...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Managing-Material-Safety-Data-Sheets-in-the-Workplace_3499.html
October 1, 2007
Click here for full pdf version of this article - includes all graphs, charts, tables, and author information The use of safety standards, particularly IEC 61508 [1] and IEC 61511 [2], has increased rapidly in the past several years. Along with the adoption of these standards has come an increase in the need for accurate reliability data for devices used in safety instrumented systems (SIS), both...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Mechanical-Failure-Rate-Data-for-Low-Demand-Applications_3390.html
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