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May 15, 2008
  FIGURE 1. In a typical system for wastewater treatment, the liquid feed is introduced at the top of the column and steam is introduced at the bottom In recent years, steam strippers have become integral parts of industrial plant operations. The goal when designing these types of columns is to have reliable operation for as long as possible. This article details the methodology used when designing...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-Designing-Steam-Stripping-Columns-for-Wastewater_3863.html
May 15, 2008
Most common acids can be stored in horizontal or vertical ASME-type tanks, as shown in the figures to the right, or vertical API-type tanks. Horizontal, carbon-steel ASME-type tanks of 10,000 — 40,000 gal capacity should have a plate thickness of 3/8 in. with dished heads of the same thickness. The thickness includes a corrosion allowance of 1/4 in., which provides a tank life of 15 — 20 years...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Facts-at-Your-Fingertips-Acid-Storage_3864.html
May 15, 2008
  Effective use of capital in the ownership and management of manufacturing assets is critical to the financial performance of companies in the chemical process industries (CPI). Many of these companies use benchmarking in compliance with applicable laws and antitrust regulations to compare, identify, and adopt industry best practices that drive the capital effectiveness of their project development...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Benchmarking-for-Success_3865.html
May 15, 2008
A. Alexander and F. Muzzio, Rutgers University Proper blender selection can improve the mixing of bulk solids. Be sure to consider post-blending segregation problems Mixing and blending of bulk solids occurs frequently in many industrial processes. Though small-scale mixing and blending functions were in use back in the early days of man (for example, mixing flour, salt, yeast and water to make bread)...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Solids-Processing-Blender-Selection-And-Avoidance-of-Post-Blender-Segregation_3867.html
May 5, 2008
Demands in the chemical processing industry to reduce energy consumption and carbon footprint are higher than ever before.  Correct sizing and selection of vacuum systems can contribute significantly to optimizing throughput and efficiency, thus reducing energy consumption, capital and running costs, and pollution. This article compares traditional ‘wet’ vacuum systems, such as steam...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Environmentally-Friendly-Dry-Vacuum-Pumps-Save-Energy-with-the-Lowest-Cost-of-Ownership-in-Chemical-and-Biofuel-Processes_3848.html
April 15, 2008
Packed Columns [1] A packed column is a vertical, cylindrical pressure vessel containing one or more sections of a packing material over whose surface the liquid flows downward by gravity, as a film or as droplets, between packing elements. Vapor flows upward through the wetted packing, contacting the liquid and facilitating absorption of the vapor into the liquid. Packings are offered in either random or...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Facts-at-your-Fingertips-Random-Tower-Packing_3792.html
April 15, 2008
Convey tough bulk materials that tend to pack, cake, smear, break apart or fluidize, and prevent separation of blended products Flexible screw conveyors are suitable for use with most bulk materials, from sub-micron powders to large pellets, both free-flowing and non-free-flowing. They are capable of conveying bulk materials at any angle, moving over or under obstructions and through small holes in walls...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Cover-Story-Move-Difficult-to-Handle-Bulk-Materials-with-Flexible-Screw-Conveyors_3795.html
April 15, 2008
  Water hammer — a high-pressure surge or wave created by the kinetic energy of the moving liquid — is not only a system issue, but primarily a safety concern. Understanding the nature and severity of water hammer in a steam-and-condensate system will allow prevention of its destructive forces. A better understanding will also help with the introduction of preventative measures into system...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-The-Number-One-Problem-in-a-Steam-System-Water-Hammer_3796.html
April 15, 2008
  Industrial furnaces, or direct-fired heaters, are only as good as the burners that supply them with thermal energy for heat transfer and endothermic chemical reactions. This article presents equations that permit calculation of such important burner-operating characteristics as flame length, flame diameter, ignitability, and flameout conditions for both very high and very low velocities. The data...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-Fired-Heater-Burner-Performance_3797.html
April 15, 2008
  This fifth in a series of articles [1 – 4] on piping design discusses the practical issues of installation and cleaning. Pipe installation The installation of pipe follows its fabrication and is very frequently a part of it. The installation of pipe can be accomplished in the following four primary ways, or combinations thereof: Field fabricate and install Shop fabricate and field erected kid...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-Piping-Design-Part-5-Installation-and-Cleaning_3798.html
April 15, 2008
A good understanding of the reaction chemistry is needed for a safe process design It is a fact that safety-related incidents do occur in the chemical process industries (CPI). These incidents have, in part, led to increased attention to reactive-chemical issues by industry, government and other stakeholders. We know that good safety-management systems take the reactivity of chemicals as well as the...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Environmental-Manager-A-Checklist-for-Safer-Chemical-Batch-Reactions_3800.html
March 15, 2008
  This is an important year for any company that makes, uses, buys or sells chemicals or products containing chemicals. On June 1, 2007, the European Union’s (EU) Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) came into force. Implementation of REACH begins in earnest in 2008. Widely viewed as one of the most important pieces of EU...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Cover-Story-Part-1-Are-You-Ready-For-REACH_3727.html
March 15, 2008
On Dec. 18, 2006, the European Union (EU) passed a new law creating a single integrated system for the registration, evaluation and...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Cover-Story-Part-2-REACH-A-Timely-Overview_3728.html
March 15, 2008
An understanding of instrumentation is valuable in evaluating and troubleshooting column performance Instrumentation is critical to understanding and troubleshooting all processes. Very few engineers specialize in this field, and many learn about instrumentation through experience, myth and rumor. A good understanding of the various types of instrumentation used on columns is a valuable tool for engineers...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-Column-Instrumentation-Basics_3729.html
March 15, 2008
The batch reactor is the workhorse of the fine chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Within it, many different unit operations are performed such as chemical reactions, bioreactions, crystallization, distillation and dissolution. Despite their significance to the industry, batch reactors have been controlled by the same underlying method for the past 50 years. This article discusses a relatively...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Engineering-Practice-Sensing-Change-in-Batch-Reactors_3730.html
March 15, 2008
Tube plugging is probably the most frequently used maintenance and repair technique for the tube side of an exchanger. This article provides information on how to locate the positions of tube failures and discusses why it is important to know such information. It describes how to find out where the tubes failed and explains how to analyze what caused failures, seen from the tube side. Descriptions of...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Maintaining-and-Repairing-Heat-Exchanger-Tubes_3731.html
February 15, 2008
Hydrocarbon leaks can disrupt recirculated cooling-water systems. Here’s an outline of effects and remedies Water is often the fluid of choice for cooling systems in the chemical process industries (CPI). Recirculated cooling-water systems are used to control the temperature of process fluids, which is necessary for process control and to achieve target product yields and specifications. Hydrocarbon...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Environmental-Manager-Caring-for-Cooling-Water-Systems_3664.html
February 15, 2008
The interior surfaces of your storage tanks are constantly at risk. If you walk past a tank often without giving thought to what is happening on the inside, it is because you trust the interior coating to protect not only the storage vessel, but also to protect the product being stored from any corrosion that might occur on the tank. Without a doubt, corrosion is the principal enemy of a storage vessel. It...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Tank-Coatings-Covering-the-Basics-of-Selection-and-Specification_3665.html
February 15, 2008
Reduce the problems associated with handling hazardous liquids by following these guidelines Pumps are one of the most ubiquitous items of equipment found in chemical processing plants. Often, they are used to transfer hazardous liquids, such as flammable, combustible, toxic and corrosive chemicals. In order to ensure safety during pumping, certain design and operating practices should be followed. This...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Feature-Report-Pump-Hazardous-Liquids-Safely_3667.html
February 15, 2008
Careful control of water and steam chemistry at CPI facilities can pay off handsomely in reliable operation Sometimes lost in the hustle and bustle of production issues at chemical-process-industries (CPI) facilities is that high-purity water, and steam produced thereby, is the lifeblood of the plant. Yet, equipment failures and curtailed production due to water and steam issues can cost a company hundreds...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Cover-Story-CPI-Water-and-Steam-Chemistry_3668.html
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