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Archives :: Technical & Practical

Displaying 181 - 200 of 501 stories.
May 1, 2011
Combustion provides heat for many industrial processes and accounts for over 80% of the power used by turbines to generate electricity. Over the past several decades, regulatory action and concerns over environmental air pollutants, such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), have pushed industrial process designers to develop burners that lower pollutant emissions and prompted manufacturers to switch to...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Burner-Design-for-Fuel-Flexibility-and-Efficiency_7978.html
May 1, 2011
Many operations involving ideal gases are readily calculated using a basic knowledge of thermodynamics. Non-ideal gas behavior, however, can deviate significantly from that of ideal gases, and in some cases, large errors can be introduced in process calculations if a gas is improperly assumed to behave ideally. The pressure, volume and temperature ( PVT) relationship of a gas defines its behavior and is...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Non-ideal-Gas-Calculations-Using-Analytical-Residuals_7981.html
May 1, 2011
Wastewater streams from petroleum refineries present some of the largest ranges of variation in contaminant loadings and contain some of the toughest contaminant profiles to treat. These factors render the wastewater treatment processes difficult to control. The most challenging area of wastewater process control in petroleum refining lies in biological treatment, due to the vast number of control...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Optimizing-Biological-Water-Treatment-in-Petroleum-Refining_7986.html
May 1, 2011
Gas turbines are widely used throughout the chemical process industries (CPI) — especially in petroleum refineries and petrochemical facilities — to provide both mechanical-drive and power-generation capabilities. Presented below are a variety of recommendations related to the selection and arrangement of gas turbines and auxiliaries, performance testing, and proper operation and maintenance of...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Specifying-Gas-Turbines_7988.html
May 1, 2011
Due to their simplicity of construction, lack of moving parts, ability to operate at a wide range of temperatures and pressures, low capital and operating cost, cyclones have been the workhorse for gas-solid separation in a wide variety of industries. If properly designed and installed, cyclones can be used to control particulate emissions as low as 5 microns in size, and sometimes to smaller sizes in...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Harnessing-the-Power-of-a-Cyclone_7990.html
April 27, 2011
Originally published in the April 1, 1985 issue, this 21 page article contains timeless recommendations for...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Eliminating-Potential-Process-Hazards_7925.html
April 26, 2011
[Originally published in the May 1995 issue of Chemical Engineering] Cyclone dust collectors have been used - and misused - all over the world for more than 100 years. One reason for the misuse is a common perception among users that all cyclones are ``created equal'' - that is, as long as a cyclone resembles a cylinder with an attached cone, it will do its job. However, to maximize separation efficiency...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Tips-for-Selecting-Highly-Efficient-Cyclones_7924.html
April 15, 2011
All good things come to an end. And so it is with Microsoft extended support and security updates for Windows 2000,which ended in July 2010. Any manufacturer with industrial applications that are based on Windows 2000 may wisely be considering a newer operating system, in order to remain in production with the necessary security support. But migrating to a new operating system can be time-consuming...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Time-for-action-Support-has-ended-for-Windows-2000-in-industrial-automation_7886.html
April 1, 2011
It was the Dr. James R. Fair Heritage Distillation Symposium at the Chicago AIChE meeting last month. I had decided to finally give a presentation about something that has been bugging me since October 28, 1974, my first day as a practicing chemical engineer. “Regarding distillation trays, I do not believe in entrainment. I believe that I am at least 50% correct.” I had the audience’s...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/I-do-not-believe-in-entrainment_7730.html
April 1, 2011
Regulatory authorities around the world require continuous emissions monitoring of certain pollutants from large combustion sources. There are two main technologies for monitoring these emissions on a continuous basis — the more traditional one relies on sampling and analyzing exhaust gases from a continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMS); and the newer one relies on software that uses...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/PEMS-The-Low-Cost-Alternative-To-Emissions-Monitoring_7741.html
April 1, 2011
The ever important aim of energy efficiency in the chemical process industries (CPI) is brought closer to its target by the practice of energy recovery in heat exchanger networks (HENs). When heat exchangers are designed to work together to exchange heat between hot and cold streams, the required utilities are effectively reduced. The HEN designer usually applies the assumptions of fixed operating...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Flexible-Heat-Exchanger-Networks_7747.html
April 1, 2011
Manufacturers of specialty chemicals are routinely required to reduce costs and increase the production of their high-value products. Specifically, competitive pressures from the developing world, increases in raw material costs and volatility in energy costs are putting significant pressure on manufacturers to minimize processing costs and maximize product yields. The economic impact of optimization...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Distillation-Back-Mixing-Impact-on-Batch-Yields_7781.html
April 1, 2011
Many individuals and organizations have made important contributions to the creation of inherently safer (IS) products, processes and process plants [1–3]. A brief survey of successful case histories shows that most reported applications relied on only a few of the core IS principles. This paper emphasizes the opportunities presented by three particular — and often-overlooked —...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Designing-Safer-Process-Plants_7782.html
April 1, 2011
A variety of factors — including a shift in the median age of workers worldwide and the impending skills shortage due to attrition and early retirements — have created a need to find fast and reliable methods and tools for mapping the technical competencies of professionals in the chemical process industries (CPI). Typically competency-mapping projects in the CPI begin with some form of task or...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Refinery-Operators-and-Maintenance-Technicians-Mapping-Competencies_7802.html
March 23, 2011
Water-supply issues are emerging as a national concern with certain sectors coming under increasing scrutiny. This is certainly the case with the ethanol industry. State discharge regulations dictate that plant designs incorporate technological solutions to minimize water use. These designs give operators increased flexibility in terms of enabling the reuse of water streams internally, with the goal to...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Achieving-Zero-Liquid-Discharge-Status_6494.html
March 1, 2011
Considering that Fractionation Research, Inc. (FRI) has been performing distillation research since 1954, don’t we have all the answers yet? Not according to the membership. The vendors of trays and packings have had very aggressive R&D programs. New and interesting products have appeared annually. In addition to the testing of such products in hydrocarbon service and at commercial diameters, the...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/FRIs-parallel-projects_6434.html
March 1, 2011
Chemical protective garments are available in a wide variety of fabrics and designs that provide varying levels of protection for chemical process industries (CPI) workers, who may be exposed to chemicals in the form of vapors, liquids and particles. While other forms of personal protective equipment — such as safety glasses and hard hats — are highly regulated in the U.S. and Canada, the...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Chemical-Protective-Clothing_6444.html
March 1, 2011
Agility, reliability, reporting and sharing of business information are among the key ingredients that have been dictated to modern-day control systems by the competitive pressures facing today’s manufacturers. In short, production must be faster, more efficient and provide actionable data for operators. And the last thing anybody in this situation needs is a server failure. Where does that leave the...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Solving-Common-Batch-Problems-Controller-Based-Systems_6446.html
March 1, 2011
For any capital-intensive and labor-intensive engineering and construction (E&C) project, the lead process engineer (LPE) plays a pivotal role. To maximize the success of these complex projects, companies that hire E&C companies should be aware of the role that the E&C process engineering team plays in terms of helping to execute these projects. In a nutshell, the LPE is responsible for...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/E-and-C-projects-Clarifying-the-Role-of-the-Lead-Process-Engineer_6455.html
February 1, 2011
The pressure testing of process piping and vessels is essential in the chemical process industries (CPI). In liquefied natural gas (LNG) and other cryogenic facilities, residual water left by hydraulic pressure testing could result in operational problems if not completely removed, and complete removal of residual water can be very difficult and time consuming. Pneumatic pressure testing avoids these...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Evaluating-and-Reducing-the-Risks-Of-Pneumatic-Pressure-Testing_6363.html
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