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Archives :: Technical & Practical

Displaying 141 - 160 of 501 stories.
January 1, 2012
      Lubricants in rotating machines reduce friction and wear, dissipate heat, protect surfaces, keep out foreign contaminants and remove wear particles. Commonly used liquid lubricants fall into two main categories: mineral (petroleum-based) oils and synthetic oils. Mineral oils are produced by refining crude petroleum. They usually contain trace amounts of some unwanted substances. By...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Lubricating-Rotating-Machinery_8840.html
December 1, 2011
Articles about thermal fluid systems often start with a variation of the statement that “thermal fluid systems typically require little ongoing maintenance for the first few years of operation” and then go on to extol the various advantages of indirect thermal-fluid process heating over competitive heating methods, such as direct heat, steam and so on. The corollary to that statement, however...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Troubleshooting-Heat-Transfer-Fluid-Systems_8729.html
December 1, 2011
The interior surfaces of your storage tanks are constantly at risk. You undoubtedly walk past a tank and do not give thought to what is happening on the inside, but that is because you trust the interior coating to protect not only the storage vessel, but also the product being stored from corrosion that might occur on the tank. Without a doubt, corrosion is the principal enemy of a storage vessel. It...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Preventing-Tank-Corrosion_8756.html
December 1, 2011
The solubility of water in hydrocarbons contained in crude oil is very important. This importance will increase in the future in view of processing, safety, hazard and environmental considerations focusing on product quality and equipment sustainability. The following brief discussion illustrates the importance. Any processing involving the lowering of temperature to values in the range of the freezing...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Solubility-of-Water-in-Benzenes-As-a-Function-of-Temperature_8758.html
December 1, 2011
Today’s plant turnarounds bear little resemblance to those of the past: Last-minute preparations and procurements combined with hurried work plans penciled into a notebook often led to undisciplined procedures, incidents and equipment that still operated with defective parts. Those bygone practices have been cleaned up and replaced with clearer processes as turnarounds have become critical to a...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Turnarounds-Shorter-Safer-Simpler_8780.html
December 1, 2011
Thermal fluid systems that both heat and cool are often utilized in batch processes. They are also often found in continuous processes where heating is required at one point in the process and cooling (often for the purpose of heat recovery) is required in a different part of the process. Because these systems utilize the same fluid for both the heating and cooling process, they are collectively referred...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Thermal-Fluid-Systems-Design-Considerations_8781.html
November 1, 2011
Water and steam are vital components of virtually all plants in the chemical process industries (CPI). And, a very important operation is the treatment of makeup water to produce the purity required for certain applications, most notably for use in heat exchangers and steam turbines. An important consideration in water treatment is that many industrial facilities are, or will soon be, dealing with...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Modern-Concepts-in-Makeup-Water-Treatment_8607.html
November 1, 2011
For decades, plant-wide oil-mist systems have been used to lubricate rolling-element bearings in high-speed applications throughout the petrochemicals, textiles, pharmaceuticals, mining and other chemical process industries (CPI). Applications range from small motors to large rotating cylinders and a variety of fluid movers. Plant-wide oil-mist systems provide a centralized way to supply lubricating oil to...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Selecting-Oil-Mist-Systems_8615.html
November 1, 2011
To stay on budget, major capital projects often call for aggressive schedules. Engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contractors often end up using work processes that are not part of an established or standard work procedure. This is especially true when it comes to acquiring materials to support the schedule, particularly for critical paths related to the piping design, supply, fabricate and...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Piping-Minimizing-the-Risk-of-Pre-buys_8617.html
November 1, 2011
In today’s climate of increased energy prices and tightening environmental emissions requirements, petrochemicals producers around the world are continuing to focus on optimizing energy consumption at their facilities. Over the past few years, while energy prices have been increasing, petroleum refiners and chemicals producers have made progress toward improved, overall energy performance by...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Energy-Benchmarking_8618.html
November 1, 2011
The benefits of field-device diagnostics are often acclaimed in qualitative terms, but on a much lower frequency in quantitative ones. Yet, an attractive cost-benefit analysis is necessary for almost any initiative to make it off the drawing board and into a plant. Even more rare are economic figures that come directly from the process plant engineers (as opposed to a vendor with vested interest in selling...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Control-Valve-Diagnostics_8620.html
November 1, 2011
Pinch analysis is a systematic method to maximize energy recovery from process streams entering and exiting process equipment. Using this method, the minimum thermodynamic requirements for hot and cold utilities can be calculated for a process. This is useful to determine areas where savings can be realized and where savings are not available. It is a method that can be used during the design of a process...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Energy-Optimization-Using-Pinch-Analysis_8624.html
October 1, 2011
  There are various reasons that make filtering necessary in processes. The raw materials might have impurities that require removal at the start of the process. After the initial mixing to produce the process slurry, the mother liquor could have solids that need a separation process. Unwanted solids could also form by a chemical reaction during the production of the process liquid. The nature of the...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Clarifying-Liquid-Filtration_8530.html
October 1, 2011
One of the key components in the operational success of chemical process industries (CPI) facilities is the transfer pump. These pumps must handle a wide variety of materials under a broad range of operating conditions. These diverse operational conditions may include harsh and corrosive environments as well as the following: • Changes in ambient temperatures and other weather conditions, such as...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Making-Pump-Maintenance-Mandatory_8535.html
October 1, 2011
To confidently design, operate and troubleshoot solids-handling processes, engineers need to characterize powder flow in ways that relate to in-plant behavior. Universal powder testers provide the multi-faceted characterization that is necessary to reliably predict operational performance. This article examines the data that such instruments generate, and discusses their practical application. While many...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Characterizing-Powder-Flow_8540.html
October 1, 2011
Equilibrium stage simulations are the nearly universal process design tool for mass transfer columns that contact vapor and liquid in countercurrent flow. Whether the service is absorption, stripping, distillation, fractionation, quench or evaporation, equilibrium stage models make mass and heat balances easy. They quickly estimate stream conditions and physical properties. They are easily altered, so a...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Determining-Packing-Height-With-Accuracy_8550.html
September 1, 2011
I was having a “wallflower moment” after Ms. Ruth Sands’ excellent troubleshooting presentation at the March AIChE meeting. That presentation was well summarized by Editor in Chief, Rebekkah Marshall in the April issue of CE (p. 5). I wanted to tell Ms. Sands, and the other meeting attendees, about my solvents column troubleshoot. Here’s the story: On this particular troubleshoot...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Believe-your-instruments-unless-_8410.html
September 1, 2011
The chemical process industries (CPI), like many others, increasingly employ non-metallic piping systems for fluid transfer — including polyvinyl chloride (PVC), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) and fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) — instead of exotic metal piping. While non-metallic piping systems have benefits, such as lighter weight and easier installation, they pose a challenge with...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Specifying-Elastomer-Seals-for-Plastic-Piping_8420.html
September 1, 2011
Dilute-phase conveying systems generally use centrifugal fans and positive displacement blowers for supplying conveying air to the conveying system. However, for some conveying systems, compressed air from a central compressor station is also used. The two important criteria required for pneumatic conveying are air flow and air delivery pressure. Different air movers have different characteristics in the...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Moving-Air-In-Pneumatic-Conveying-Systems_8421.html
September 1, 2011
Condensate pots are commonly used on the condensing sides of some reboilers, such as those that are heated by steam or refrigerant vapor. These pots provide a liquid seal that prevents uncondensed vapor from blowing out of the reboiler into the condensate system. A break in this seal can result in heat transfer losses. With steam reboilers, blowing vapor into the condensate header may also lead to...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Reboiler-Condensate-Drums-Silencing-Hydraulic-Hammer_8438.html
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