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Displaying 1 - 20 of 516 stories.
July 1, 2014
May Technology Profile I would like to ask the following questions and offer the following comments regarding the May 2014 Technology Profile (Ethanol from the Direct Gasification of Biomass, p. 43). • What is the overall yield of ethanol (in gallons per pound of dry biomass), as well as the total cost of the process (in dollars per gallon of ethanol), and its energy efficiency (energy content of...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/July-Letters-Ethanol-from-the-direct-gasification-of-biomass_11905.html
July 1, 2014
New safety and environmental regulations, longer plant uptime and changes in maintenance practices have created new requirements across the chemical process industries (CPI). Among the plant equipment affected by these changes are control valves, since they are used in numerous applications in a variety of process conditions. Figures 1 and 2 show typical control valves installed in CPI plants. The primary...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Control-Valve-Selection-True-Cost-Savings-Are-Available_11915.html
July 1, 2014
Pressing global issues, such as climate change and declining energy security, have led to an increasing interest in the use of renewable feedstocks for fuel production. These feedstocks include lignocellulosic materials, such as waste biomass from the agriculture and forest industries. Ethanol is commonly produced by fermentation of sugars from agricultural feedstock — mostly corn and sugarcane...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Producing-Ethanol-from-Lignocellulosic-Biomass_11916.html
July 1, 2014
In the face of intense market pressures, companies are increasingly requiring their engineering organizations to complete capital projects more quickly, while spending less capital and creating systems that cost less to operate over the long run. They are also asked to do this with fewer engineers. While this “do more with less” philosophy may not seem feasible to some, it is possible when the...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Project-Optimization-Through-Engineering_11925.html
July 1, 2014
Dust in the chemical processing industries (CPI) is present in numerous operations, including powder processing; the transport of materials on belt or rotary-screw conveyors; grinding materials in giant shredders and pulverizers; machining, sawing, grinding or sanding operations; dumping bags of materials into reactors; handling coating materials; as well as the processing of pharmaceuticals and foods. An...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Dust-Control-in-the-Chemical-Processing-Industries_11927.html
June 1, 2014
Adipic acid is a dicarboxylic acid that is widely applied to the production of nylon, polyurethanes, plasticizers and other polymers. Its main use is as one of the raw materials for the manufacture of the polyamide nylon 6,6. In 2012, 80% of the total adipic-acid demand was directed to this application. The traditional production method for adipic acid is based on the oxidation of cyclohexane, a...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Bio-based-adipic-acid_11822.html
June 1, 2014
Sour-water strippers (SWSs) are common in petroleum refineries, as well as gas-processing and gasification plants, and are used to remove ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide from contaminated process waters. The design of these units is typically done using the equilibrium or theoretical stage method. The actual number of trays is determined from the required theoretical stages, using tray...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Fine-Tune-the-Design-of-Sour-water-Strippers-Using-Rate-based-Simulation_11832.html
June 1, 2014
Pressure-relief solutions are commonly used in the chemical process industries (CPI) to ensure safe working environments for personnel and to protect equipment and assets. Relief valves (RV) and rupture discs (RD) are the most commonly used pressure-safety devices and are generally specified and selected according to application-specific requirements. For pressure-system designers looking for viable...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Combining-the-use-of-Rupture-Discs-with-Relief-Valves_11833.html
June 1, 2014
Ensuring the security of industrial control systems (ICS) can be a daunting and complex task, requiring expertise and experience in several areas from a variety of contributors. The rapid pace of improvements to both technology and practice adds to the challenge. Finally, the amount and complexity of information, guidance and advice that is available can easily become overwhelming. Rather than focusing on...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Industrial-Control-Systems-Security-The-Owner-Operators-Challenge_11834.html
June 1, 2014
Compressors for specialized chemical process industries (CPI) applications — particularly high-pressure applications (involving large- and medium-sized machines) and those calling for small compressor units — present particular challenges to system designers and operators. This article discusses a variety of engineering recommendations that should be considered to address these challenges. This...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Compressors-for-Specialized-Applications_11836.html
May 1, 2014
Increasing global demand for energy and a drive to develop renewable energy sources have focused research and development attention on biomass (including wood, agricultural residues and municipal wastes) as a source of energy and products. Biomass can be converted into bioenergy via biochemical and thermochemical means. In biochemical routes, the biomass is converted into liquid or gaseous fuels by...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Ethanol-from-the-Direct-Gasification-of-Biomass_11730.html
May 1, 2014
Plate-and-frame heat exchangers, or plate heat exchangers (PHEs), are a type of compact heat exchanger. PHEs have been widely used in the food industries, mainly because they easily meet health and sanitation requirements due to their simple disassembly for cleaning. They have recently become more common in the chemical process industries (CPI) for certain applications and operational conditions...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Unlocking-the-Secrets-of-Plate-and-Frame-Heat-Exchangers_11732.html
May 1, 2014
Leaks in a chemical process industries (CPI) facility can run the gamut from creating a costly waste to prefacing a catastrophic failure.. They can be an annoyance, by creating pools of liquid on concrete that can become a possible slipping hazard and housekeeping problem, or a leak that can emit toxic vapors, causing various degrees of harm to personnel. In some cases a leak may be a simple housekeeping...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Piping-System-Leak-Detection-and-Monitoring-for-the-CPI_11733.html
May 1, 2014
Large petroleum-refining complexes often have dozens of fired heaters, making broad-based competency in this area essential to overall reliability, safety and energy efficiency. Despite industry’s widespread familiarity with fired heaters, they continue to pose significant challenges during initial control-system design and unless properly specified, operated and maintained, fired heaters can hinder...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Fired-Heaters-Best-Practices-for-the-Control-of-Fuel-Gas_11734.html
May 1, 2014
Existing chemical process industries (CPI) facilities possess years, if not decades, of legacy engineering information. The data exist in a myriad of formats and are typically siloed across multiple systems and locations. In cases where the engineering data are either lost or damaged, undocumented, or limited to the institutional knowledge of the local operations team, control documents related to piping...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Three-Insights-for-Managing-Legacy-Data_11738.html
April 1, 2014
The piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) is often considered to be the gold standard for the proper design, operation and maintenance of plants in the chemical process industries (CPI), including chemical, oil-and-gas facilities, mining operations, food-processing plants, and water- and wastewater-treatment plants. The P&ID provides important information for manufacturing and installing...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Principles-of-P-and-ID-Development_11592.html
April 1, 2014
Succinic acid is an important industrial chemical that is traditionally derived from petroleum feedstocks. It can be used in several areas — from high-value niche applications, such as food, beverages and pharmaceuticals, to large-volume applications, such as plasticizers, resins and coatings. However, the current market for succinic acid is limited to specialized areas because of its costly...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Production-of-Bio-based-Succinic-Acid_11611.html
April 1, 2014
In an integrally geared centrifugal compressor (Figure 1), several impellers are mounted on the ends of high-speed pinion shafts, which are rotated by a bull-gear. Each impeller’s casing is mounted directly on the horizontally split gear casing. As is the case for any turbomachinery type used in the chemical processing industries (CPI), there are advantages and disadvantages associated with the use...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Integrally-Geared-Compressors-in-the-CPI_11626.html
April 1, 2014
Pressure variations resulting from the oscillatory flow patterns found in positive-displacement machinery, especially reciprocating compressors, are referred to as “pulsations.” Found in both liquid- and gas-handling systems, pulsations are a common phenomenon in the chemical processing industries (CPI). Operational problems associated with pulsations include resonance conditions, high...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Protecting-Against-Compressor-Pulsations_11629.html
March 1, 2014
How big can a fermenter get? And what would the biggest fermenter look like? The answers to these questions depend upon how the requirements of heat transfer, mass transfer (gas-to-liquid), and momentum transfer (mixing) are met. In an earlier article (Heat Transfer for Huge-Scale Fermentation, Chem. Eng., November 2013, pp. 44–46) the authors described how heat-transfer requirements can cause...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Mass-Transfer-in-Fermentation-Scaleup_11536.html
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