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Archives :: Technical & Practical

Displaying 1 - 20 of 501 stories.
April 1, 2014
The piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) is often considered to be the gold standard for the proper design, operation and maintenance of plants in the chemical process industries (CPI), including chemical, oil-and-gas facilities, mining operations, food-processing plants, and water- and wastewater-treatment plants. The P&ID provides important information for manufacturing and installing...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Principles-of-P-and-ID-Development_11592.html
April 1, 2014
Succinic acid is an important industrial chemical that is traditionally derived from petroleum feedstocks. It can be used in several areas — from high-value niche applications, such as food, beverages and pharmaceuticals, to large-volume applications, such as plasticizers, resins and coatings. However, the current market for succinic acid is limited to specialized areas because of its costly...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Production-of-Bio-based-Succinic-Acid_11611.html
April 1, 2014
In an integrally geared centrifugal compressor (Figure 1), several impellers are mounted on the ends of high-speed pinion shafts, which are rotated by a bull-gear. Each impeller’s casing is mounted directly on the horizontally split gear casing. As is the case for any turbomachinery type used in the chemical processing industries (CPI), there are advantages and disadvantages associated with the use...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Integrally-Geared-Compressors-in-the-CPI_11626.html
April 1, 2014
Pressure variations resulting from the oscillatory flow patterns found in positive-displacement machinery, especially reciprocating compressors, are referred to as “pulsations.” Found in both liquid- and gas-handling systems, pulsations are a common phenomenon in the chemical processing industries (CPI). Operational problems associated with pulsations include resonance conditions, high...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Protecting-Against-Compressor-Pulsations_11629.html
March 1, 2014
How big can a fermenter get? And what would the biggest fermenter look like? The answers to these questions depend upon how the requirements of heat transfer, mass transfer (gas-to-liquid), and momentum transfer (mixing) are met. In an earlier article (Heat Transfer for Huge-Scale Fermentation, Chem. Eng., November 2013, pp. 44–46) the authors described how heat-transfer requirements can cause...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Mass-Transfer-in-Fermentation-Scaleup_11536.html
March 1, 2014
Dilute-phase pneumatic conveying systems must be operated in a certain sequence and have sufficient instrumentation and operating controls to assure reliable operation and prevent problems. This article discusses two subjects that are important for successful dilute-phase conveying. Discussed below are design guidelines for instrumentation and controls that can prevent operating problems, such as pipeline...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Dilute-phase-Pneumatic-Conveying-Instrumentation-and-Conveying-Velocity_11537.html
March 1, 2014
As an owner or manager of a company whose product is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), you will, at some point, be subjected to an FDA inspection. And once an inspection is underway in your facility, anything affecting the drug or food product directly or indirectly in an adverse manner is within the purview of the FDA inspectors. If discrepancies are found during such an...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/FDA-Form-483-Minimizing-FDA-Inspection-Citations_11538.html
March 1, 2014
Ethylene and propylene are the most important intermediates in the petrochemical industry. Globally, they are produced mainly by steam cracking of hydrocarbons, such as naphtha, propane and ethane. The methanol-to-olefins (MTO) process is an alternative approach to producing these light olefins from methanol feedstock, which can be derived from other raw materials, including natural gas, coal or biomass...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Methanol-to-Olefins-Process_11539.html
March 1, 2014
The chemical process industries (CPI) are, by their very nature, global in scope. While chemical process operators share many common aspects (in terms of the use of chemical engineering unit operations), the location of their operation brings about different requirements when it comes to managing gaseous and particulate pollutants, because different countries have different regulations with regard to air...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Global-Air-Pollution-Regulations-Variation-is-the-Norm_11540.html
March 1, 2014
Corrosion to the external surface of process piping and vessels that is hidden under the insulation is referred to as corrosion under insulation (CUI). Aging piping and equipment in chemical plants and petroleum refineries have made CUI detection and assessment requirements increasingly important. Because the need to detect and assess CUI is critical in chemical process industries (CPI) facilities...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Implementing-a-Corrosion-Under-Insulation-Program_11548.html
February 1, 2014
Since 1956, polypropylene has been commercially produced using catalysts and technology that were developed from independent research by Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta. Their namesake catalysts have enabled the widespread use of this polymer in the decades since. Polypropylene has become a major part of the modern plastics-resin market because of its unique physical properties, and is now employed in a wide...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Polypropylene-Production-via-Gas-Phase-Process-Stirred-bed-reactor_11436.html
February 1, 2014
Compressible gas flow with significant variation in density along pipes is commonplace in the chemical processing industries (CPI). In designing these pipes for compressible flow, it is important to calculate the pressure loss or maximum gas-handling capacity for safety and economic reasons. Due to the complexity of the equations for compressible flow, which often require time-consuming iterations, current...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Compressible-Fluid-Flow-Calculation-Methods_11438.html
February 1, 2014
Would you like to make a quick mental calculation to determine approximate flowrate, velocity, or pipe and duct sizes for many common situations? This article presents two methods for estimating flow characteristics without the aid of charts, tables, calculators or software programs. One method applies to liquid flow in pipes, and the other to air flow in ducts. The techniques are intended to be simple...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Quick-Pipe-and-Duct-Flow-Calculations_11439.html
February 1, 2014
Thermal dispersion (TD) mass flowmeters measure the mass flowrate of fluids (primarily gases) flowing through a closed conduit, such as a pipe. This article describes the operation and installation of TD mass flowmeters, and gives the reader information about what applications these meters are most suited for.     Background The first general description of TD mass flowmeters is attributed to...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Advanced-Thermal-Dispersion-Mass-Flowmeters_11443.html
February 1, 2014
Beginning with the early days of automated multivariable control in the 1980s, the trend has always been toward the use of larger matrices and more models. Today’s multivariable controllers commonly comprise dozens of variables and hundreds of models. But the next big advancement in multivariable control may be a shift toward the use of small-matrix, model-less multivariable control practice...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Small-matrix-Model-less-Multivariable-Control_11446.html
January 1, 2014
Rising temperatures and rapid or excessive heat buildup are useful markers for determining the operational health of many types of machinery and components that are used in a wide array of industrial and manufacturing settings. The types of mechanical and electrical systems for which temperature increases often signal problems include (but are not limited to): rotating machinery, such as motors, turbines...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Remote-Thermal-Sensing_11336.html
January 1, 2014
Have you ever heard someone say, “The job is a lot easier if you have the right tools?” Having the right tools is critical to the success of craftsmen, such as carpenters, electricians, plumbers and the like. The same holds true for managing projects. Initiating a project raises many questions (such as: What will we do? How will we do it? Who will do it? How much will it cost? When will we do...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Seven-Tools-for-Project-Success_11345.html
January 1, 2014
Propylene is the second most important intermediate in the petrochemical industry after ethylene, and its global demand is dominated by the production of polypropylene. However, the growing use of natural gas from shale deposits as a raw material for steam crackers and fluid-catalytic-cracking (FCC) units in the U.S. is slowing propylene production, because it is mainly obtained as a byproduct of...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Propylene-Production-via-Propane-Dehydrogenation_11361.html
January 1, 2014
Pressure vessels are common in the chemical process industries (CPI) and they range widely in size and complexity. Process engineers may be tasked with inspecting a new pressure vessel or with witnessing hydrostatic testing of a vessel. In addition, engineers could be asked to witness repairs or alterations to a pressure vessel already in service, during day-to-day process and maintenance operations...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Pressure-Vessel-Quality-Control-Requirements_11363.html
January 1, 2014
Corrosion and deposition in boilers, steam turbines and many types of process equipment are among the most expensive causes of outages in utility and industrial steam plants. Deposits and scale buildup on heat-transfer surfaces reduce efficiency, and when allowed to accumulate on steam turbines, such buildup can reduce the capacity. Corrosion-related failures can result in outages ranging from a few days...
http://www.che.com/technical_and_practical/Pressurized-Piping-Sampling-Steam-and-Water_11365.html
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