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Archives :: Processing & Handling :: Separation (Liquid-Liquid & Gas-Liquid)

Displaying 181 - 200 of 277 stories.
July 1, 2009
The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI, Palo Alto, Calif.; has signed an agreement with Air Products (Allentown, Penn.; to support the company’s development of a ceramic ion transport membrane (ITM) for air separation. The membrane is being tested and scaled up under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE, Washington D.C....
June 1, 2009
A new correlation that matches most commercial trays The sieve tray has been in the distillation market place for many decades. It has been used extensively in distillation columns worldwide as a highly efficient vapor-liquid-contacting device. Many people have examined dry tray pressure-drop data for sieve tray decks and there have been several attempts to correlate these data. But the error of such...
April 1, 2009
Aqueous Recovery Resources, Inc. (ARR; Bedford Hill, NY;, has developed the Suparator, an oil/water separation system that involves no moving parts or media, for low operational costs and minimal maintenance. The separator (diagram) is based on the Bernoulli effect, whereby increased stream velocity in a fluid results in internal pressure reduction, which enables liquids of different...
April 1, 2009
With the exception of Oslo-type crystallizers, the main commercial crystallizers are agitated systems that use an agitator [agitated tank or draft-tube baffle (DTB)] or a circulation pump [forced circulation (FC) crystallizers]. In such systems, however, large crystals become damaged by the pump or impeller, which leads to the generation of fines, says Michel Malfand, president of Crystal Evap consult...
March 1, 2009
Membrane polymers are packaged into a configuration, commonly called a device or an element. The most-common element configurations (figure) are tubular, capillary fiber, spiral wound, and plate and frame. Tubular Made from ceramic, carbon, stainless steel or a number of thermoplastics, tubular elements have inside diameters from ¼ in. up to about 1 in. Typically, the membrane is coated on the...
February 13, 2009
Coalescers of type Phase Separator PT 800 and PT 500 were developed for an application to separate micro droplets of hydrochloric acid from silicone oil, and vise versa. The pressure vessels are made of carbon steel with an...
February 12, 2009
CeraMem ceramic membranes are a proprietary technology platform provides ceramic membrane performance at comparable lifecycle costs to polymeric membranes. The design, which is a combination of unique materials of...
February 12, 2009
Septron Bio-Safe is said to be the world’s first electro-deionization (EDI) module with an integrated membrane stage. It is based on proven and patented spiral-wound technology and has an additional membrane stage for removal of...
February 1, 2009
For separating two components with similar volatilities, extractive distillation is typically used, whereby a high-boiling, non-volatile solvent is added to "break the azeotrope" — a process that is both energy intensive and often involves the use of hazardous solvents. In an effort to reduce the energy requirements and avoid the use of hazardous solvents used in extractive distillation, an...
January 1, 2009
Here, we present criteria needed for the intelligent, effective specification of trays for a distillation or stripping column. Among the key parameters and accessories during specification are column diameter, tray spacing, number of trays, number of passes, type of downcomers, weir heights, provision of downcomer backups, tray pressure drops, design of bottom seal pan, column bottom arrangement, and...
January 1, 2009
For wastewater treatment, membrane bioreactors (MBRs) provide superior effluent quality in a small footprint compared to alternative activated-sludge treatment methods. However, MBRs are prone to fouling, and thus may require frequent membrane cleaning with the associated manpower and chemical costs. Microdyn-Nadir GmbH (Wiesbaden;, in cooperation with Darmstadt University (both...
January 1, 2009
Solvay Solexis S.p.A. (Bollate, Italy; has commercialized a new perfluorosulfinic acid (PFSA) polymer, tradenamed Aquivion, which was specifically designed for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Aquivion ionomer...
December 1, 2008
A new membrane is combined with a novel process design to reduce energy costs in a CO2 recovery system developed by Membrane Technology and Research Inc. (MTR, Menlo Park, Calif.; The two-step system uses a membrane made of a hydrophilic rubbery polymer, formed into spiral-wound modules. The membrane is 10 times more permeable to CO2 than conventional membranes used for CO2, says...
September 15, 2008
The need to conserve water is becoming a common concern throughout the world. Whether this is due to the cost of water, availability of water, or environmental concerns, water conservation is becoming a major focal point, both in the public and private sector. In those areas where renewable water resources are limited, and in regions where there are significant environmental concerns and costs associated...
September 15, 2008
Vogelbusch GmbH (Vienna, Austria; has developed a patent-pending distributor system that it claims makes possible the adaption of simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography for use in the pharmaceutical industry. Prior to this, SMB use has been limited to the commodity sector, says the firm (see CE, August 1994, p. 30). The...
September 15, 2008
Crystallization is a method of solid-fluid separation in which pure chemical crystals are formed. Crystallization kinetics consists of three major phenomena: nucleation (the birth of a crystal), transfer of the solute from the supersaturated solution to the crystal surface, and a reaction during which the solute becomes incorporated into the crystal. Supersaturation In order to drive the process of...
August 15, 2008
A Filter Bag for Food, Drug and Beverage Applications Introduced by the manufacturer as the first series of filter bags specifically designed for the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries, Cleargaf filter bags (photo) promise full compliance with U.S. and European food contact requirements and are independently certified. The filter bags meet the EU’s more stringent regulations on low...
August 15, 2008
Market demand for water purification is driving reverse osmosis forward Increasingly, water has become one of the hottest topics of the decade. Estimates indicate that water usage has increased tenfold in the last ten years. A recent United Nations report noted that one third of the world’s population lives in areas suffering from water shortages. Furthermore, industrial demands for water are...
July 15, 2008
Monitoring Our Atmosphere Please refer to the Editor’s Page, April 2008: Mr. Gerald Ondrey’s last sentence sums it up. "Ultimately, the only truly green solution is to reduce consumption — the second law of thermodynamics says so." Rep. Roscoe Bartlett (R, Md.) speaks out plain and clear regarding energy policy, but colleagues respond politically and not...
June 15, 2008
ExxonMobil Corp. (Irving, Tex.; plans to spend more than $100 million on a commercial demonstration of its Controlled Freeze Zone (CFZ) technology for removing carbon dioxide from natural gas. The plant, to be located at the company’s Shute Creek Treating Facility near LaBarge, Wyo., will...
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