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Archives :: Processing & Handling :: Separation (Liquid-Liquid & Gas-Liquid)

Displaying 161 - 180 of 277 stories.
September 1, 2010
Starting around 1970, many new contacting devices became available for use in distillation, absorption and stripping columns. Those devices included high-performance random packings, structured packings, high-capacity structured packings, augmented crossflow trays, counterflow trays and cocurrent flow trays. At the request of FRI’s membership, many of those devices were tested in FRI’s 4-ft and...
August 1, 2010
My first distillation dream occurred about 30 years ago, and yet, I recall it as vividly as if it were yesterday. In it, my distillation-column design work started with a vapor-liquid thermodynamic model that was widely regarded as perfect. I had operating data from ten similar columns. The feed composition was precisely known, and there were no alternative feedstocks. The overhead specification was easy...
August 1, 2010
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials (IWM; Halle, Germany; have developed ceramic membranes with uniform pore structure and tight pore-size distribution, which makes them more stable and delivers considerably higher...
July 1, 2010
In 1952, 37 companies established Fractionation Research, Inc. (FRI). Most of those original members are now gone or absorbed by other companies. Nevertheless, their goal was to study distillation in columns having diameters and heights that were similar to industrial columns. The columns of the world were getting larger and more numerous and were too often being designed using bench-top apparatuses and...
June 1, 2010
In a distillation column tray, vapor passes upward through liquid that is flowing across a horizontal perforated plate. Vapor passing through the perforated plate forms a two-phase mixture with the liquid and enables mass transfer contacting. This mixture is typically quite turbulent. Tray design must allow the turbulent liquid to fall away from the rising vapor in the space above the tray, while also...
June 1, 2010
I have 70 supervisors. It sometimes feels like I am pulled in 70 different directions — north, south, east, west, up, down and inside-out. But even after two years at this job, I can still hold my hand steady — if I put it in a vice. Nevertheless, I feel that I have the best job in the distillation world; I am technical director at Fractionation Research, Inc. (FRI; Stillwater, Okla....
May 1, 2010
On March 24, at the American Institute of Chemical Engineers’ (AIChE; New York; Spring Meeting in San Antonio, Tex., the Separations Division honored the myriad contributions of Dr. Karl T. Chuang. Given the scope and impact of his contributions, we are likewise proud to recognize him here. “Very few chemical engineers have spent as much time at as many chemical...
May 1, 2010
A new approach to the design of the downcomer portion of distillation column trays — presented at the recent American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Spring 2010 meeting (San Antonio, Tex.; March 21–25) — promotes a uniform fluid flow pattern, which improves mass transfer efficiency. The Downcomer Distributor was developed through a joint research program between AMT International...
April 1, 2010
A rapid and ongoing expansion of polysilicon production capacity will likely generate an oversupply for the next several years, driving polysilicon manufacturers to further innovate processes and reduce operating costs in preparation for an impending wave of new demand. Drastic price drops experienced in 2009 are expected to continue at a slower pace in 2010, yet polysilicon producers remain poised to...
April 1, 2010
I read with great interest your article, Kettle Troubleshooting (February, pp. 26–33). The authors are to be congratulated on a very in-depth and timely presentation on the effects of boiling two-phase flow in kettle type reboilers. For over 45 years, I have been engaged in the refrigeration industry where refrigeration engineers are often challenged in designing evaporators to avoid liquid...
February 1, 2010
Many reactions, extractions, separations and other operations in the chemical process industries (CPI) involve the use of organic solvents. In addition to handling and disposal issues, organic solvents can pose a number of environmental concerns, such as atmospheric and land toxicity. In many cases, conventional organic solvents are regulated as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In addition, certain...
February 1, 2010
A survey of tower failures [ 1 ] ranks kettle reboilers as the most troublesome reboiler type in the chemical process industries (CPI). Excessive pressure drop in kettle reboiler circuits is the prominent kettle malfunction, causing liquid to back up in the tower base beyond the reboiler return elevation. This high liquid level leads to premature flooding and capacity loss. In almost all the surveyed...
February 1, 2010
Researchers from the Center for Membrane Technology, Beijing University of Technology (China; have developed a new spiral-wound membrane module for use in oxygen-enriched combustion. A pilot-scale system with five membrane modules has been built and tested in a 4-ton, oil-fired boiler. According to the Center’s director, professor Shulan Ji, the fuel required to generate one 1 GJ...
October 6, 2009
The special group "Water and Wastewater Technology" of the German Process Plant and Equipment Association (VDMA; Frankfurt, Germany; has released a new VDMA Specification on prevention and reduction of scaling and fouling in membrane plants. The objective of this VDMA Specification is to help to ensure that measures are taken to prevent and reduce scaling and fouling when planning...
October 1, 2009
Bag filters for industrial applications have been in existence longer and are considered by some to be easier and simpler to specify than cartridges for a filtration project. And although cartridge filtration is now one of the mostly widely used filtration technologies in the chemical process industries (CPI), it is not always the first choice. How does one decide which filtration method should be used...
September 17, 2009
In an agreement with Raschig GmbH (Ludwigshafen, Germany) announced Sept. 16, UOP (Des Plaines, Ill.) has acquired exclusive rights to offer Super-Pak equipment for all UOP process units worldwide, as well as...
August 1, 2009
Successful adsorber design requires information about certain adsorbent properties, including: adsorbent densities and void fractions; isotherms or other equilibrium data; and data on mass-transfer kinetics and fixed-bed dynamics. Here, these adsorbent properties are explained, along with corresponding equations. Densities and void Fractions Three densities are relevant: bulk, particle and solid. There are...
August 1, 2009
A team from the School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, at the University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia;, has developed a process for the micronization of insulin called Arise (Atomized Rapid Injection for Solvent Extraction). According to BioParticle Technologies Pty. Ltd. (BPT; Sydney;, the company marketing Arise, the technology offers...
July 1, 2009
“When you improve the efficiency or capacity of a product, it almost always can be used to improve the process economics with respect to investment costs or operating costs,” says Mark Pilling, manager of technology with Sulzer Chemtech (Tulsa, Okla.). To help processors do this, separation-technology providers strive to maintain a strong base of engineering expertise to assist customers in...
July 1, 2009
Advanced Membrane Technologies and Applications Edited by Norman N. Li. Wiley. 111 River St., Hoboken, NJ 07030. Web: 2008. 994 pages. $150.00. Reviewed by Peter S. Cartwright, Cartwright Consulting Co., Minneapolis, Minn. The crossflow-pressure-driven membrane separation technologies of microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis have been commercially available for...
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