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October 1, 2013
Boilers generate steam using different methods to circulate the steam-water mixture through the evaporator tubes. These methods include natural circulation (Figures 1, 2a–2c), forced circulation (Figure 3a), and a once-through design. Figures 3b, 4 and 5 show examples of a waste-heat water tube and fire-tube boilers with external downcomers and risers. Most boiler systems have evaporator tubes heated...
July 1, 2013
On May 9, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels surpassed 400 ppm in Mauna Loa, Hawaii for the first time since measurements began there in 1958. This concentration is well above the 280 ppm levels occurring prior to the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century, according to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California (San Diego, Calif.; scripps.ucsd.edu). Today’s rate of increase...
January 1, 2013
Waste heat recovery (WHR) is essential for increasing energy efficiency in the chemical process industries (CPI). Presently, there are many WHR methods and technologies at various stages of implementation in petroleum refineries, petrochemical, chemical and other industry sectors. Increasing energy costs and environmental concerns provide strong motivation for implementing more and newer methods and...
November 1, 2012
Weftec 2012, the Water Environment Federation’s 85th annual technical exhibition and conference, attracted over 17,000 attendees on September 29 – October 3, 2012 at the Morial Convention Center in New Orleans, La. With 980 exhibiting companies, the following is a small sampling of products and services that were on the exhibition floor. Linde North America Gas treatment systems...
October 1, 2012
Increasing production of natural gas from hydraulic fracturing of shale deposits has fundamentally altered the landscape of chemical production in North America. The higher margins on steam-cracking ethane to produce ethylene have resulted in significant feedstock shifts in the U.S. over the past two years. Numerous chemical producers are expanding ethylene capacity to take advantage of the increased...
July 1, 2012
Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook. 4th ed. By Meherwan P. Boyce. Elsevier Inc., 30 Corporate Drive, 4th floor, Burlington, MA. Web: elsevierdirect.com. 2011. 1,000 pages. $150.00. Reviewed by Amin Almasi, Rotating machine consultant Brisbane, Australia Gas turbines are cornerstones of modern industry and are widely used in the chemical process industries (CPI). New developments have increased the number of...
May 1, 2012
Use these pumps where product containment is important Wilden This company recently announced the availability of its PX800 Advanced Series Stainless Steel AODD Pump (photo). The new PX800 design is center-ported and features a full 51-mm (2-in.) flow path and threaded 51-mm horizontal fluid connections. This construction makes the PX800 pump well suited for liquid-transfer applications where product...
March 1, 2012
Already, in the first two months of this year, the unpredictable and winding road of the so-called Boiler MACT, has taken yet another set of hair-pinned curves. Now industry groups are pushing even harder for an act of Congress that would put on the brakes and allow more time for the regulations to be reshaped. At stake, says Robert Bessette, president of the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO...
February 1, 2012
One of the reasons that Chemical Engineering will have the honor of celebrating its 110th anniversary this year is its longstanding reputation for original, noteworthy and unbiased articles that cannot be found anywhere else. Our internal policies help protect the magazine’s reputation from a number of threats, but not without relentless tenacity on the part of the editors. Much of that is to be...
January 1, 2012
A limit controller that is suited for oven applications Yokogawa This company has recently introduced the UT35A-L Limit Controller (photo), which is an FM-approved instrument suited for oven, furnace and kiln applications. The UT35A-L can be configured as a high or low limit. It comes standard with universal input, three alarm outputs and retransmission output. There is also a timer for exceeded duration...
December 1, 2011
Modernizing the world’s power grids represents a key infrastructure goal for economic growth. Large-scale, energy-storage technologies offer the opportunity to optimize the efficiency of the next-generation power grid and extend its capabilities. Renewed attention on energy storage systems for the grid has given rise to a host of emerging technologies aimed at more effectively transmitting...
September 1, 2011
This article presents equations that allow the user to calculate liquid volume as a function of liquid depth, in both vertically and horizontally oriented tanks with dished heads. The equations accommodate all tank heads that can be described by two radii of curvature (torispherical heads). Examples include: ASME flanged & dished (F&D) heads, ASME 80/10 F&D heads, ASME 80/6 F&D heads...
August 1, 2011
Last year, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA;Washington, D.C.; www.epa.gov) proposed new emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants (HAP) emitted by industrial boilers and solid-waste incinerators (CISWI) based on the performance of the maximum achievable control technology (MACT). The so-called “boiler MACT” final rules were signed by the EPA Administrator on February 21...
July 1, 2011
As demand for basic metals grows, engineers and scientists are looking for new ways to extract these elements from ores. “The easy stuff has already been found and processed. One of the main challenges of mining and minerals processing companies is now the economical processing of low-grade ores”, says Steve Rogers, managing director of the Parker Center for Integrated Metallurgy Solutions...
April 1, 2011
Traditionally, most students have learned about chemical reactions in laboratories using test tubes, beakers and flasks. Those who have gone on to discover and develop new products have typically done so using these batchwise techniques. This mind-set has continued through the piloting and scaleup phase, so that today, many chemical products are produced batchwise in large, continuously stirred reactors...
January 1, 2011
Agglomeration is the process of converting fine powder particles into larger particles by the introduction of external forces. Agglomeration is often desirable because the process yields a product that has a higher bulk density, contains less dust, and has improved flowability. Figure 1 shows samples of fine potash powder and powder that has been agglomerated. Figure 1. Fine potash powder is one...
May 1, 2010
A virtually endless number of process options are available for agglomerating powders in the chemical process industries (CPI). These processes can be divided into two main categories: agitation and compression. Agglomeration by agitation includes granulation processes, such as fluidized-bed, disc, drum and mixer granulators. Agglomeration by compression includes compaction processes, such as tabletting...
January 1, 2010
The chemical process industries (CPI) invest large amounts of capital each year and spend even more to produce the goods they sell. In 2007, CPI companies large enough to be in the Fortune 500 list invested more than $100 billion of capital and spent more than $1.2 trillion making their products. Most of this money is committed by decisions made in the early stages of process development and plant design...
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